Allergy Ebook

Allergy Relief

This easy-to-read guide contains every piece of information you will EVER need to beat allergy, and get the relief from allergic reactions that you have always needed. Sniffing, itching, and watery eyes are NOT a natural part of life, and they ARE something that you can get rid of! Don't sit around feeling miserable and wishing you were feeling better when there are solutions to your problems! You don't have to pay HUGE amounts of money to a doctor for expensive medicines when this book can give you the tools to get rid of allergy symptoms once and for all. We are so sure that it will help you that we give a 60 day money-back guarantee if it doesn't help you. That's how sure we are that your symptoms will be GONE. Breathe easy; help is on the way! Order now to get the relief of allergy symptoms you deserve. Continue reading...

Allergy Relief Summary


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The Fc2 3PE40 chimeric protein a possible treatment for allergy responses

About 20 of the world population suffers from various allergic diseases such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, food allergies, atopic dermatitis and anaphylaxis. The alarming increase in the prevalence of these diseases over the past decade has led to a clear need for more effective therapeutic strategies. The interaction between IgE and mast cells or basophils is the primary effector pathway in allergic responses. IgE binds to the high-affinity receptor (FceRI) at its constant region, found almost exclusively on the surface of these cells (Kinet, 1990). Cross-linkage of cell surface-bound IgE by multivalent antigen causes receptor aggregation, triggering explosive cellular degranulation and releasing mediators of allergy such as histamine and serotonin (Ishizaka and Ishizaka, 1978).The finding that the distribution of the FceRI receptor is restricted to cells participating in the allergic response makes it an attractive candidate for targeted therapy by chimeric proteins.

Allergic Reactions to Local Anesthetics

True allergic reactions to local anesthetics are very rare. Patients may be allergic to the anesthetic, a metabolite of the anesthetic or a preservative in the anesthetic. Allergies to the ester anesthetics are more common than allergies to the amide anesthetics. As discussed, the ester anesthetics may be metabolized to PABA, which is believed to be responsible for the allergic reactions (Fig. 22.15). Although the amide type local anesthetics are not metabolized to PABA they may contain a paraben preservative that can be metabolized to PABA like compounds. Parabens are methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl aliphatic esters of PABA. In addition to parabens, anesthetics may be preserved with metabisulfites that are also known to cause allergic reactions in sensitive patients, especially patients with asthma.74 Thus, patients that are allergic to ester type local anesthetics should receive a preservative free amide type anesthetic.

Present Situation And Potential Of Seaweeds For Novel Functional Food Product Developments

Isotonic drinks, bakery, and hypoallergenic baby foods. Further, ever-concerning chronic disease-related conditions such as cancer, high cholesterol, coronary heart diseases, atherosclerosis, stroke, hypertension, diabetes (type II), gastrointestinal disorders, osteoporosis, intestinal complications, and immune disorders including allergy have been used as prime focuses when developing these functional food products. When analyzing the supply structure of these functional foods, the main types of successful actors in the commercial functional food segment are multinational food companies with a broad product range and pharmaceutical or dietary products producing companies. Therefore, the combination of consumer acceptance, advances in science and technology, and scientifically backed evidence linking consumption of biochemical compounds in seaweed to disease and disease prevention can be taken as unprecedented opportunity for these food marketers to develop seaweed-based functional...

Improving Marketed Biopharmaceuticals

The chance of success in demonstrating therapeutic efficacy is much higher for drug candidates already investigated and available. Up until 20 some years ago biologics used to ameliorate disease were largely obtained through extraction of human or animal tissue. For example, insulin extracted from beef and pork had been used to treat diabetic patients for decades before the introduction of recombinant human insulin. To achieve success, however, a recombinant protein or synthetic product must provide an improved safety profile. In addition to being competitive in production cost, the recombinant version of human insulin appears to be less immunogenic and incur fewer immune-mediated, drug-induced allergies as compared with insulin derived from animal by-products. Heightened public perception and concern regarding animal tissue-extracted contaminants such as that triggering bovine spongiform encephalopathy better known as mad cow disease fuels the demand for recombinant products to...

Side effects and their management

Paracetamol is generally well tolerated. Skin rashes and other allergic reactions occur occasionally, but generalized anaphylactic-type reactions are very rare.103104 The rash is usually erythematous or urticarial, but may be more serious and accompanied by a drug fever and mucosal lesions.

Skin SensitivityA Specific Toxicological Concern

One further problem of topical formulations associated with many ingredients and of special concern with preservatives is the development of skin sensitivity (84). The skins of some individuals are particularly susceptible to an allergic conditioning to chemicals known as type IV contact hypersensitivity. Haptens (chemicals like urushiol found in poison ivy) are absorbed through the skin and, while in the local tissues, chemically react with local proteins. Langerhans cells, the local cells involved in immunological surveillance, identify these now denatured proteins as foreign (nonhost). The Langerhans cells then leave the dermis by way of the lymphatics and enter the draining lymph node, where they complete the sensitization process by passing the allergen message on to resident lymphocytes (antigen presentation). Once sensitized, subsequent contact with the offending chemical (hapten) leads to inflammation and skin eruption. Many of the preservatives used in pharmacy are phenols...

Immunologic Responses

Repeated administration of a therapeutic macromolecule may elicit antibodies against itself, but the degree of binding to the protein and the clinical significance of the interaction vary widely. In some cases protein immunogenicity may produce hypersensitivity or allergic reactions analogous to penicillin allergies, and alter the pharmacokinetics and phar-macodynamics of a drug. In the text that follows we will discuss (1) factors that influence immunogenicity, (2) assessment of immunogenicity, and (3) consequences of antibody formation.

Consequences of Antibody and Other Immune Responses

Although rare, immune response to a therapeutic protein may lead to anaphylactic or allergic reactions that require immediate medical attention. Less severe but far more frequent consequences are local injection-site reactions. Neutralizing antibodies in effect reduce the dose of drug available to exert a therapeutic response. Nonneutral-izing antibodies may also reduce biological activity by increasing the size of the resulting protein-antibody complex, which may influence the tissue distribution and clearance of the pharmaceutical protein. Although both mechanisms reduce biological activity, neutralizing antibodies usually result in more severe loss of activity. Human against mouse allergic reactions Human against mouse allergic reactions Human against mouse allergic reactions Rare antibody or allergic reactions Allergic reaction increased incidence of binding antibody with recent infection of streptococcus Binding antibody and allergic reactions Binding and neutralizing antibodies...

Herbert Oelschlger and Andreas Seeling

In 1943, Niels Lofgren presented with lidocaine the group of basic anilides he had developed. Lidocaine is primarily a conduction and infiltration anesthetic but frequently causes allergies upon topical application. From this group, the chiral bupivacaine later assumed a special role in anesthesiology as a long-term anesthetic. Ropivacaine is the first important local anesthetic from the group of basic anilides, which is available as the S-enantiomer. Its clinical profile is better than that of bupivacaine. Above all, the cardiac toxicity of the S-enantiomer is lower than that of the R-enantiomer. In dental medicine, the chiral substance articaine is highly rated because of its rapid penetration of the bone wall (Figure 9.2 and Figure 9.3).

Common Adverse Effects

Diclofenac produces side effects (particularly Gi) in -20 of patients, and -2 of patients discontinue therapy as a result. Modest reversible elevation of hepatic transaminases in plasma occurs in 5-15 of patients. Transaminases should be measured during the first 8 weeks of therapy with diclofenac, and the drug should be discontinued if abnormal values persist or if other signs or symptoms develop. Other untoward responses to diclofenac include CNS effects, rashes, allergic reactions, fluid retention, and edema, and rarely impairment of renal function. The drug is not recommended for children, nursing mothers, or pregnant women. Consistent with its preference for COX-2, and unlike ibuprofen, diclofenac does not interfere with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin. Given these observations, diclofenac is not a suitable alternative to a selective COX-2 inhibitor in individuals at risk of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease.

Pharmacological Properties

In recent years, this situation has started to change again. Herbal medicine is most commonly employed for allergies, insomnia, respiratory problems, and digestive problems. The total out-of-pocket expenditure amounted to 5.1 billion in 1997, and the total number of herbal medicines currently available in the USA has been estimated to exceed 20,000.

Apnea Of Preterm Infants

Seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever) is caused by deposition of allergens on the nasal mucosa, resulting in an immediate hypersensitivity reaction. This reaction usually is not accompanied by asthma because the allergenic particles are too large to be inhaled into the lower airways (e.g., pollens). Treatment for allergic rhinitis is similar to that for asthma. Topical glucocorticoids, including beclomethasone (beconase), mometasone (nasonex), budesonide (rhinocort), flunisolide (nasarel), fluticasone (flonase), and triamcinolone (nasacort), can be highly effective with minimal side effects, particularly if treatment is instituted immediately prior to the allergy season. Topical glucocorticoids can be administered twice daily (beclomethasone and flunisolide) or even once daily (budesonide, mometasone, fluticasone, and triamcinolone). Cromolyn usually requires dosing three to six times daily for full effects. Rare instances of local candidiasis have been reported with glucocorticoids...

Burning Mouth Syndrome An Update

Summary This article provides an overview of burning mouth syndrome (BMS), a chronic oral-facial pain condition that affects many U.S. adults. The authors provide an update on what is known about the epidemiology, etiology, and treatment of BMS. Specific topics include the clinical presentation of BMS statistics on the incidence and prevalence of BMS oral disorders that can result in BMS, such as denture allergy, salivary dysfunction, or taste disturbances systemic conditions that can result in BMS, such as hematological disorders, nutritional disorders, anemias, central nervous system disorders, psychological disorders, diabetes mellitus, or Sjogren's syndrome and treatment options, including the use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines. The authors conclude that the dental profession should formulate standardized symptom and diagnostic criteria so that multidisciplinary investigations can identify effective and reliable treatment strategies. 2 figures. 2 tables. 65 references....

Immune Interventions of Human Diseases through Toll Like Receptors

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the immune sensors for infections, triggering robust innate immune activation followed by protective adaptive immunity against various infectious diseases. Recent evidence, however, has suggested that TLRs are involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including not only infectious diseases but also autoimmune diseases, allergy and atherosclerosis. Therefore, prophylactic or therapeutic application of TLR-based immune interventions should be potent, but their safety must be demonstrated using experimental animal models as well as human resources, including analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here, we focus on recent advances in understanding of the protective and pathogenic roles of TLRs in human diseases. An important role of the innate immune system in the first-line defense against pathogens, and the underlying molecular and cellular mechanism(s) involved not only in infectious diseases but also in cancer, allergy, autoimmune diseases and...

Limitations to the current evidence

Adverse events, including prion-related diseases with the use of human-derived (albumin or plasma protein fraction) or animal-derived (gelatins) products and allergic reactions, are still rare. The effect of an intravenous fluid on these outcomes and adverse events can influence one's choice of fluid.

Choice Of Opioid Agents For Postoperative Pain Treatment

Morphine is the standard agent for opioid therapy. However, it has to be taken into account that this drug needs a long period to pass through the blood-brain barrier in order to bind with the receptor and establish an effect. Therefore one should not readminister small doses at short intervals 168 . If morphine cannot be used because of an unusual reaction or allergy, another opioid such as hydro-morphone can be substituted. Pethidine (meperidine, USP) should be reserved for very brief courses in patients who have demonstrated allergy or intolerance to other opioids such as morphine and hydromorphone. Pethidine is contraindicated in patients with impaired renal function or those receiving antidepressants that are monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Normeperidine is a toxic metabolite of meperidine, and is excreted through the kidney. Normeperidine is a cerebral irritant, and accumulation can cause effects ranging from dysphoria and irritable mood to seizures.

Therapeutic Applications of CpG Oligonucleotides

As a result of the activation of both innate and adaptive immunity, CpG ODNs can be applied in the therapy of cancer, infectious diseases, and asthma and or allergy, but also as highly effective adjuvants in vaccination.50 The therapeutic approaches in cancer and antiviral therapy involve both mono-therapy and combination therapies. TLR9 agonists are attractive drug candidates capable of triggering T helper cell 1 (Th1)-type immune responses (e.g. secretion of Th1-promoting chemokines and cytokines).14,51 It is known that the Th2-type cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 play a central role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, including asthma. While the Th2-type cytokines are secreted by activated CD4+ T-cells, the Th1-type cytokines IL-2 and IFN-g are produced by Th1 cells (Figure 6.3). Th1 and Th2 cells interact in a counter-regulatory fashion, since the Th2-type cytokines Il-4 and IL-10 promote Th2 development and inhibit Th1 cell and cytokine production. In contrast,...

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

There is a wide variety of animal models that mimic aspects of inflammatory bowel disease. The choice of an appropriate model depends on the question being addressed in a particular study. There are multiple factors contributing to IBD, including for example, environmental or genetic susceptibility. Common experimental models differ largely with regard to the factors that contribute most prominently to the pathogenesis of IBD. Therefore not only should the model be chosen carefully, but the intrinsic limitations in the interpretation of results should also be recognized. For instance, to test new anti-inflammatory drugs a simple and reproducible model involving non-specific inflammation might be selected. Examples are dex-tran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in which the cellular toxicity of DSS induces an inflammatory reaction, or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, which is a delayed-type hypersensitivity response to this contact allergen. In addition to...

Formation of eicosanoids in allergic inflammation

It was described early on that antigen challenge was an effective cause of the release of SRS from perfused animal lungs 15 . Brocklehurst 17 demonstrated allergen-induced liberation of SRS from lung tissue of asthmatics and introduced the name SRS-A (slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis). In the years before the discovery of the leukotrienes, SRS-A was primarily considered as a prominent mediator of allergy and immediate hypersensitivity 18 . Following the structural identification of SRS-A as being composed of the cysteinyl leukotrienes LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4 19 ,

Toxicityand Contraindications

The artemisinins enjoy a deserved reputation of safety. The principal targets of toxicity are brain, liver, bone marrow, and fetus. The neurological changes that occur in severe malaria confound the evaluation of neurotoxicity however, no systematic changes were attributable to treatment in patients 5 years of age. Dose-related and reversible changes also have been seen in reticulocyte and neutrophil counts and in transaminase levels. About 1 in 3000 patients develops an allergic reaction. The artemisinins are potent embryotoxins in animals. Only a few small studies have monitored the outcome of pregnancies in women treated with endoperoxides, but there are no reported increases in congenital or developmental abnormalities. Given the current state of safety information, the artemisinins should be used with caution in very young children and pregnant women.

Allergeninduced bronchial hyperresponsiveness

Experimental studies of bronchial hyper-responsiveness in 5-lipoxygenase-deficient mice have generated findings which suggest that leukotrienes contribute to different aspects of the process in this particular model 100 . Thus, the antigen-induced allergenic sensitization was suppressed in animals which lacked the 5-lipoxygenase and the airway reactivity to methacholine was reduced by disruption of 5-lipoxygenase.

Differential Diagnoses

Like AFP and AO, BMS is a diagnosis of exclusion. Burning pain symptoms in the oral mucosa can be caused by systemic or local conditions, including anemia, vitamin B, folic acid, or iron deficiency, untreated diabetes, hormonal disturbances (menopausal complaints, estrogen deficiency), oral candidiasis, hyposalivation, Sjogren's syndrome, oral lichen planus, or systemic lupus.136,142 Furthermore, burning symptoms can be a side effect to some medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and also allergy to dental materials, dentures, toothpaste, etc., must be considered and excluded before a BMS diagnosis can be given.136,142

Heparin and heparin bonded CVCs

Vascular thrombosis and subsequent systemic infection are well known to be associated with CVCs.23 Although heparin is an effective anticoagulant, it is associated with risks including autoimmune-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, allergic reactions, and the potential for bleeding it should not be used without clear evidence of benefit. A meta-analysis evaluating the effect of heparin on thrombus formation and infection in patients with CVCs and pulmonary artery catheters has been performed by Randolph et al.24 The 14 randomised controlled trials evaluated both the use of heparin and the use of heparin bonded CVCs. Heparin bonding reduces the risk of clot formation within the first 24 hours following placement of pulmonary artery catheter and is standard on most commercially available pulmonary artery catheters. For other CVCs, the combined data showed that prophylactic heparin reduced the rate of CVC related vascular thrombosis and bacterial colonisation and may decrease CVC...

Brief Mechanism About Asthma

FceRI is located on the surfaces of basophils and mast cells, which act as effector cells in IgE-mediated immune responses (Kinet, 1990). FceRI is composed of four subunits one p-chain, one a-chain, and two disulfide-linked g-chains. Most of the a-chain extends into the extracellular region, where it binds directly and with high-affinity to the Fc portion of IgE antibodies thus, the a-chain is the most important component of the FceRI molecule (Hakimi et al., 1990). The cross-linking of FceRI with allergen-IgE complexes causes the release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, and prostaglandins from activated basophils and mast cells, which contributes to the allergic responses in asthma, atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and food allergies (Drombrowicz et al., 1993 Gauchat et al, 1993 Metzer, 1991 Yanagihara et al., 1997).

CDNA Expression Libraries

The display of cDNA libraries was first achieved on pIII by an indirect display method, based on the interaction between the Jun and Fos leucine zippers 55,56 . This approach was successfully applied for the selection of allergenic proteins from Aspergillus fumigatus using serum from affected patients 57 . An alternative approach was later described where cDNA fusion occurred at the C-teminal domain of the minor coat protein pVI 58 . cDNA libraries are being used for the screening and selective isolation of genes by specific gene-product lig-and interaction. For the identification of disease-related targets a cDNA fragment display library can be selected against homogeneous ligands 59 , such as natural ligands or ligands selected from antibody or peptide libraries against novel targets, or heterogeneous ligands such as patient sera or polyclonal antibodies. The latter application has been validated by our group for the selection of products from a colorectal carcinoma cDNA library...

Checklist For Acceptable Strength Quality And Purity

Are there added substances (see Definitions), confirmed or potentially present from manufactured products, that may be expected to cause an allergic reaction, irritation, toxicity, or undesirable organoleptic response from the patient Are there added substances (see Definitions), confirmed or potentially present, that may be unfavorable (e.g., unsuitable pH or inadequate solubility)

Molecular and Functional Imaging of the Histaminergic Nervous System

In addition, PET and nC doxepin is also useful for the evaluation of drug-induced side effects and the elucidation of their mechanism 35 . Some of the most frequently used therapeutic drugs for allergies such as seasonal pollinosis, or hay fever, are H1R antagonists (antihistamines). There are many available antihistamines, but some of them have sedative side effects. Therefore, it is important to develop an objective and reliable method for measuring the strength of such sedative side effects 35, 40, 41 . To date, we have studied the mechanism of functional suppression in signal transmission through H1Rs in the brain. Usually, antihista-mines are used to suppress the actions of mast cells in the peripheral blood and to control allergic reactions. However, some of these drugs may enter the brain and suppress the signal transmission of intracerebral H1Rs. As a result, it becomes difficult to maintain arousal (sedative effects), and sometimes these drugs may cause us to make mistakes...

Transporter Expression In The

Treatment of many eye diseases, such as corneal keratitis, conjunctivitis, dry eye, eye allergies and glaucoma, relies on topically applied medication. Some of these drugs exert their effect at the ocular surface, while others may need to penetrate across the epithelial lining of the cornea and or conjunctiva to reach their target sites within the eye. Expression and function of corneal and conjunctiva transporters, in particular peptide and amino acid transporters, have been thoroughly reviewed in 2003 by Dey et al. (4). Table 1 lists many transporter proteins identified as existing in cornea and conjunctiva, as well as other tissues in the eye.

Do Glucocorticoids Inhibit Or Stimulate Immune Function In Depression Or Following Chronic Stress

The glucocorticoids appear to optimise the course of a biological response that, if delayed, could be potentially detrimental to the organism. As an example of the pathological interactions that can occur between glucocorticoids and cytokines, it is possible that in some allergies glucocorticids induce T-helper 2 cellular response (Daynes and Araneo, 1989) that involve the release of IL-4 and other cytokines. There is evidence that some allergies involve inappropriate T-helper cell responses. Thus while it is generally accepted that glucocorticoids are effective in treating most allergic diseases following chronic administration, in some cases they may exacerbate the condition by inducing T-helper cells to produce cytokines such a IL-4 (Blotta, De Krugff, and Umestsu, 1997). It would also appear that glucocorticids may act synergistically with IL-4 to induce immunoglobulin E (IgE), a principal mediator of allergic diseases (Wu, Nakajima, and Delespessa 1991). Such observations may be...

Mechanism Of Action

Therapeutic uses Glucocorticoids commonly are combined with other immunosuppressive agents to prevent and treat transplant rejection. High dose pulses of intravenous methyl-prednisolone sodium succinate (solu-medrol, a-methapred) are used to reverse acute transplant rejection and acute exacerbations of selected autoimmune disorders. Glucocorticoids also are efficacious for treatment of graft-versus-host disease in bone marrow transplantation. Glucocorticoids are used routinely to treat autoimmune disorders (see Chapter 59) and acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis (see below). In addition, glucocorticoids limit allergic reactions that occur with other immunosuppressive agents and are used in transplant recipients to block first-dose cytokine storm caused by treatment with muromonad-CD3 and to a lesser extent thymoglobulin (see below).

Polarization of TAM into M1 and M2 Phenotype Macrophage in Tumor Microenvironment

Recent evidence has demonstrated that polarization of TAMs into different phenotype subsets (M1 or M2) may play an important role on regulation of their function in tumor microenvironment. Cells belonging to the monocyte-macrophage lineage have long time been recognized to be heterogeneous, and macrophage heterogeneity is likely to reflect the plasticity and versatility of these cells in response to exposure to microenvironmental signals. Cytokines and microbial products profoundly and differentially affect the function of mononuclear phagocytes. Mononuclear phagocytes often function as control switches of the immune system, securing the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory reactions. Depending on the activating stimuli, these cells can develop into different subsets classically (M1) or alternatively (M2) activated mononuclear phagocytes (including M2a, M2b, and M2c), and the molecular and functional characterization of which is a current topic of investigation. Evidence has...

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

SAR studies of ACTH24 showed that the COOH-terminal sequence is not particularly important for biological activity. Removal of the NH2-terminal amino acid results in complete loss of steroidogenic activity. Full activity has been reported for synthetic peptides containing the first 20 amino acids. A peptide containing 24 amino acids has full steroidogenic activity, without allergenic reactions. This is of practical importance because natural ACTH preparations sometimes produce clinically dangerous allergic reactions.

Polymerprotein Conjugates

Among PEG-cytokine conjugates, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), used to prevent chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, is used in its PEGy-lated form (PEG-GCSF, pegfilgrastim), which has a longer half-life and fewer allergic reactions than the free protein.32

Other Parenteral Routes

ID administration involves injection into the skin layer. This route is largely limited to injection of materials to detect hypersensitivity reactions for diagnostic purposes. It is important that the product per se be nonirritating. Volumes are normally given at 0.05 mL dose, and the solutions are isotonic. ID medication is usually administered with a V -or 5 8-in., 25- or 26-gauge needle, inserted at an angle nearly parallel to the skin surface. Absorption is slow and limited from this site since the blood vessels are extremely small, even though the area is highly vascular. The site should not be massaged after the injection of allergy test materials. Skin testing includes not only allergens, such as pollens or dust, but also microorganisms, as in the tuberculin or histoplasmin skin tests.

Pharmacology and pharmaceutics

Betes.The increased use of human recombinant insulin and highly purified insulins has led to a decline in the incidence of local reac-tions,insulin allergy,immune resistance,and lipoatrophy in patients with type 1 diabetes. Humulin R (U-500) is especially useful for the treatment of diabetic patients with marked insulin resistance (daily requirements more than 200 units), since a large dose may be administered subcutaneously in a reasonable volume.

Use of Anesthetics in Ophthalmic Procedures

Topical anesthetic agents used clinically in ophthalmology include cocaine, proparacaine, and tetracaine drops and lidocaine gel (see Chapter 14). Proparacaine and tetracaine are used topically to perform tonometry, to remove foreign bodies on the conjunctiva and cornea, to perform superficial corneal surgery, and to manipulate the nasolacrimal canalicular system. They also are used topically to anesthetize the ocular surface for refractive surgery using either the excimer laser or placement of intrastromal corneal rings. Cocaine may be used intranasally in combination with topical anesthesia for cannulating the nasolacrimal system. Lidocaine and bupivacaine are used for infiltration and retrobulbar block anesthesia for surgery. Potential complications and risks relate to allergic reactions, globe perforation, hemorrhage, and vascular and subdural injections. Both preservative-free lidocaine (1 ), which is introduced into the anterior chamber, and lidocaine jelly (2 ), which is placed...

Mundus Vult Decipi High Mutation Rates of HIV and New Paradigms for Treatment

Lentiviral vector delivery of RNA-derived modalities offers another valid and potentially efficacious gene therapy-based approach to augment current anti-HIV-1 therapeutics. I am very thankful that the next contribution again comes from one of the most knowledgeable experts in this field John J. Rossi, Chair of Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope and Professor at the City of Hope National Medical Center. Due to his credibility in this field, John serves as Principal Investigator and Program Director for several NIH studies for the treatment of HIV with siRNA, HIV ribozymes and other RNA-based therapeutics. For his achievements he was the recipient of the very prestigious Merit Award, Division of AIDS, from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. His colleague Kevin V. Morris worked with Monsanto before he did his PhD at the University of California, Davis and then moved on to the Center for AIDS at the University of California, San Diego.

Toxicity and Drug Safety

For formal reasons, side effects of aspirin might be divided into three categories first are the systemic effects due to acute and chronic overdosing or intoxication. To this category also belongs the bleeding tendency and toxic effects, in particular life situations, such as pregnancy or older age (Section 3.1). In addition to systemic effects, some organs, in particular, those with a preexisting injury or increased sensitivity, might be affected even by therapeutic doses of aspirin in the absence of systemic side effects. This involves the GI tract, liver, kidney, and the audiovestibular system (Section 3.2). Finally, there are no dose-related side effects that are due to a particular predisposition of the patient. These hypersensitivities might be inherent or acquired. This involves the Widal triad (aspirinsensitive asthma), allergic reactions at the skin or mucosa (urticaria), and Reye's syndrome with a still unclear relationship with aspirin (Section 3.3).

Inverse Agonists and GProtein Coupled Receptors

G-protein-coupled receptors represent the single largest family of cell surface receptors involved in signal transduction. It is estimated that several hundred distinct members of this receptor family in humans direct responses to a wide variety of chemical transmitters, including biogenic amines, amino acids, peptides, lipids, nucleosides, and large polypeptides. They therefore represent major targets for the development of new drug candidates with potential application in all clinical fields. Many currently used therapeutics act by either activating (agonists) or blocking (antagonists) these receptors widely used examples are b-adrenoceptor agonists for asthma and antagonists for hypertension, histamine Hr and H2-receptor antagonists for allergies and duodenal ulcers, respectively, opioid receptor agonists (e.g., morphine) as analgesics, dopamine receptor antagonists as antipsychotics, and 5HT receptor agonists (e.g., sumitriptan) for migraine. The concept of efficacy is a...

Synthesis Of Zolantidine

Synthesis Zolantidine

Drugs which act at the H1 receptor have been known for many years. Discovery of the first HA antagonist (over fifty years ago) led to an increased understanding of anaphylaxis and allergy, set the stage for demonstrating the likely existence of more than one type of HA receptor, and indirectly led to the subsequent development of phenothiazines and tricyclic antidepressants (Green 1983). Hundreds of the so-called 'classical' or first-generation H1-antagonists have been developed and many are still in clinical use. These compounds all share two aromatic rings and a basic amine moiety, and have been further divided into five chemical classes. Members of this group include diphenhydramine, d-chlorpheniramine, and pyrilamine. All of these drugs have good brain-penetrating characteristics. Pyrilamine (also named mepyramine) remains a prototype H1 antagonist with very high affinity and excellent selectivity for the H1 receptor. Although all of the first-generation compounds have some local...

Peripheral indications

HA can produce a wide variety of powerful physiological changes as a result of activation of H1 receptors. Diseases involving mast cells such as urticaria pigmentosa or systemic mas-tocytosis also show many of these responses. Patients with allergies also experience many of these symptoms. It has been known for many years that HA is potent spasmogen on intestinal and bronchiolar smooth muscle, actions which are mediated predominantly by H1 receptors (Ash and Schild 1966). Asthmatics show exaggerated H1 bronchocontriction, but H1 antagonists are of little benefit for treating most patients. However, H1 receptors can induce coronary vasospasm, and may contribute to myocardial infarction (Gupta etal. 2001 Nakamura 2000). H1 effects on blood vessels consist of direct contractile actions on some

Botanical Polysaccharides as Adjuvants

In contrast to the adjuvant properties described previously botanical polysaccharides have, in some cases, been reported to attenuate immune responses and have been proposed as promising agents for the treatment of IgE-dependent diseases (e.g., atopic dermatitis, asthma, atopic rhinitis, urticaria and food allergies). For example, Danilets and co-workers 297 studied the effects of water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from six different plants on anaphylactic shock and production of IgE and IgG1 by lymphocytes from mice immunised with OVA. They found that treatment with polysaccharides from coltsfoot, sweet flag, clover, Artemisia, marigold and elecampane reduced animal mortality after induction of anaphylactic shock. In addition, injection of these polysaccharides reduced serum concentrations of IgE and IgG1 297 . Likewise, pectins have been reported to exhibit antiallergic activity, resulting in a suppressed allergic asthmatic reaction in animals treated with doses of 5-12 mg kg...

Dibenzocycloheptenes And Dibenzocycloheptanes

Cyproheptadine possesses both antihistamine and anti-serotonin activity and is used as an antipruritic agent. It is indicated for the treatment of hypersensitivity reactions, perennial, and seasonal allergic rhinitis vasomotor rhinitis allergic conjunctivitis, uncomplicated allergic skin manifestations of urticaria and angioedema amelioration of allergic reactions to blood or plasma and cold urticaria. It is also used off-label for nightmares associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), prevention of migraine, suppression of vascular headaches, and appetite stimulation. Sedation is the most prominent side effect, and this is usually brief, disappearing after 3 or 4 days of treatment.

Clinical Use Of Vasopressin Peptides

Mild facial flushing and headache are the most common adverse effects associated with desmopressin. Allergic reactions ranging from urticaria to anaphylaxis may occur with desmopressin or vasopressin. Intranasal administration may cause local adverse effects in the nasal passages, such as edema, rhinorrhea, congestion, irritation, pruritus, and ulceration.

Diseased Compromised Skin and Solvent Selection

Erupted skin surface will allow increased water loss from the body. Psoriasis is a chronic recurring non-infectious scaling skin condition characterised by erythematous plaques covered with silvery scales. For topical therapy the loss of skin barrier integrity has been shown to be valuable for targeting drugs to the required site of action while minimising side effects (Anigbogu et al., 1996). Lichenoid eruptions are characterised by intensely itchy flat-topped papules while eczema is a further non-infectious eruptive condition, in which blistering occurs. Contact dermatitis can result from a direct irritant action of a substance on the skin (irritant contact dermatitis) or further exposure, following previous sensitisa-tion of the skin, from a contact allergen (allergic contact dermatitis). Irritant dermatitis is the more common of the two manifestations, and can be caused by many chemicals, solvents and detergents sodium lauryl sulphate was used to induce irritant dermatitis before...

Amine Group In Erythromycin

Base Hydrolysis Sulfate Half Ester

Because the antibacterial spectrum of activity of olean-domycin is considered inferior to that of erythromycin, the pharmacokinetics of troleandomycin have not been studied extensively. Oral absorption is apparently good, and detectable blood levels of oleandomycin persist up to 12 hours after a 500-mg dose of troleandomycin. Approximately 20 is recovered in the urine, with most excreted in the feces, primarily as a result of biliary excretion. There is some epigastric distress following oral administration, with an incidence similar to that caused by erythromycin. Troleandomycin is the most potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes of the commercially available macrolides. It may potentiate the hepatic toxicity of certain anti-inflammatory steroids and oral contraceptive drugs as well as the toxic effects of theo-phylline, carbamazepine, and triazolam. Several allergic reactions, including cholestatic hepatitis, have also been reported with the use of troleandomycin.

Glutamate Receptors as Possible Mediators of Cell and Tissue Injury and Pathology

Mast cells are known to be found in connective tissues throughout the body, most abundantly in the submucosa tissues and the dermis. Purcell et al. (1996) showed that spermidine-induced release from the mast cells are dependent upon the presence of Ca+2 in the external mileu. The influx of Ca+2 is known to be accompanied by NMDAR 1 activation. This increased intracellular Ca+2 concentration initiates the exocytotic degranulation process in mast cells. Spermidine is a natural polyamine and the opening of the ion channel associated with NMDAR receptors is facilitated by its binding sites. In neuronal tissue, polyamines triggers histamine secretion through interaction with a polyamine site associated with an NMDAR 1 macro-complex. Therefore, spermidine can modulate activation of the macro-complex at polyamine-binding sites in the lung or other sites. MK801, the antagonist of NMDAR 1, blocked the release of histamine secretion which was induced by the spermidine. If the NMDAR 1 is present...

Use of Immunomodulatory Drugs for Ophthalmic Therapy

GLUCOCORTICOIDS Glucocorticoids have an important role in managing ocular inflammatory diseases their chemistry and pharmacology are described in Chapter 59. Currently the glucocorticoids formulated for topical administration to the eye are dexamethasone (decadron, others), prednisolone (pred forte, others), fluorometholone (fml, others), loteprednol (alrex, lotemax), medrysone (hms), and rimexolone (vexol). Because of their anti-inflammatory effects, topical glucocorticoids are used in managing significant ocular allergy, anterior uveitis, external eye inflammatory diseases associated with some infections and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, and postoperative inflammation following refractive, corneal, and intraocular surgery. After glaucoma filtering surgery, topical glucocorticoids can delay the wound-healing process by decreasing fibroblast infiltration, thereby reducing potential scarring of the surgical site. Glucocorticoids are commonly given systemically and by sub-Tenon's...

Potential antiallergic compounds derived from marine macroalgae

Brown algae have been recognized as a rich source of phlorotannins, which are formed by the polymerization of phloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihy-droxybenzene) monomer units and biosynthesized through the acetate-malonate pathway. Notably, phlorotannins exhibited versatile beneficial bioactivities such as antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antihuman immunodeficiency virus, matrix metalloproteinase enzyme inhibition, and antihypertensive (Vo and Kim, 2010). In relation to antiallergic properties, many phlorotannins from brown algae were considered as potential natural inhibitors of allergic reactions. Phlorotannins of fucodiphloroethol G, eckol, dieckol, 6,6'-bieckol, and phlorofucofuroeckol A (PFF-A) purified from E. cava were evidenced to be efficient against A23187- or FceRI-mediated histamine release from KU812 and RBL-2H3 cells. The inhibitory mechanism was known due to the blockade of these compounds on binding activity between IgE and FceRI (Le et al., 2009 Li et al., 2008)....

Antiallergic effects

Allergic diseases are affecting approximately one-third of the general population in the world, and due to environmental changes and food habits, the prevalence and incidents of allergies are increasing. Wealth of research has been done to find antiallergic compounds, and phlorotan-nins or phlorotannin extracts from edible brown algae have shown promising potential in antiallergic therapy in vivo and in vitro models. Hyaluronidase enzyme is known to play an important role in allergic reaction, and Samee et al. (2009) have found that Sargassum tenerrimum phlorotannin extract is a strong inhibitor of hyluronidase (IC50 21 mg ml). It is more potent than the commercially antiallergic drug disodium cro-moglycate (IC50 39 mg ml) and almost similar to the natural inhibitor catachin (IC50 20 mg ml). 6'6'-bieckol (Le et al., 2009), fucodiphloroethol G, and phlorofucofuroeckol A (Li et al., 2008) isolated from E. cava have also shown significant antiallergic activity by inhibiting histamine...

Marine macroalgae as crude materials with antiallergic activities

Although marine algae have been believed to be safe and efficient agents for antiallergic treatment, they have not been as extensively studied as terrestrial plants. Recently, a number of marine macroalgae have been studied for their capability against allergic reactions (Kimiya et al., 2008 Sugiura et al., 2006b). Among them, Petalonia binghamiae, Eisenia arborea, and Sargassum thunbergii were found to be effective inhibitors of hista-mine and p-hexosaminidase release from mast cells. Moreover, Sargassum hemiphyllum and Carpopeltis affinis, which are used in Korean folk medicine for the therapeutic treatment of various allergic diseases, have been determined to suppress atopic allergic reaction by attenuating the release of histamine, p-hexosaminidase, IL-8, and TNF-a from the activated mast cells (Na et al., 2005a,b). Notably, brown alga Ecklonia cava has been identified as a suppressor of FceRI, a high-affinity receptor for IgE on the cell surface of mast cell and basophils (Shim...

Role of Leptin in Inflammation and Its Possible Connection to Obesity in Schizophrenia

Irrespective of the cause, epidemiological evidence suggests that obesity increases the risk of autoimmune disease and such immune related diseases as asthma. It has been speculated that this arises due to the decrease in immunological tolerance associated with the increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines and leptin, and the decrease in adiponectin 47 . It has been demonstrated that both IL-6 and leptin downregulate the regulatory T cells thereby reducing antigen surveillance. Thus, obesity, through the induction of chronic low-grade inflammation and decreased immu-nological tolerance to antigens, increases the activity of the Th-2 humoral pathway thereby increasing the risk of allergies and immune-related disorders. Such changes are a common feature of schizophrenia.

Parenteral Dosage Forms

An emulsion is a dispersion of one immiscible liquid in another. This inherently unstable system is made possible through the use of an emulsifying agent, which prevents coalescence of the dispersed droplets. Parenteral emulsions have been used for several purposes, including (i) w o emulsions of allergenic extracts (given subcutaneously) and (ii) o w sustained-release depot preparations (given intramuscularly). Formulation options are severely restricted through a very limited selection of stabilizers and emulsifiers, primarily owing to the dual constraints of autoclave sterilization and parenteral injection. Additionally, unwanted physiological effects (e.g., pyrogenic reaction and hemolysis) have further limited the use of IV emulsions.

Hardshell Capsules Advantages

Hard-shell capsules also may be used to advantage as unit-dose containers for delivering dry powder drugs by inhalation (15,16). Micronized drug with carrier powder is released for inhalation in dry powder inhaler (DPI) devices that either cut or puncture the shell walls (17). Such systems are used to deliver asthma and allergy drugs like sodium cromolyn, and may prove advantageous for delivering large, labile, biological molecules that are difficult to deliver by other means.

Marine microalgae and their antiallergic properties

Microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioac-tive macromolecules in marine resources, including carotenoids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, chlorophylls, vitamins, and unique pigments (Kay, 1991). Thus, they have been used as additives in a variety of human foods and animal feeds. Ingestion of various edible microalgae not only supplies protein and other nutrients but also modulates both adaptive and innate aspects of immunity (Price et al., 2002). Indeed, Spirulina was determined to decrease IgE antibody level, and increased IgG1 and IgA antibody production in the serum of the mice immunized with crude shrimp extract as an antigen (Hayashi et al., 1998). In a clinical trial, Spirulina consumption resulted in the significant amelioration in symptoms and physical findings of allergic rhinitis patients compared with placebo (Cingi et al., 2008). The clinical effect of Spirulina on allergic rhinitis was determined due to inhibiting the...

Painful bladder syndrome interstitial cystitis

Painful bladder syndrome (PBS alternatively known as bladder pain syndrome) is a descriptive diagnosis that has been recently advocated for use on an international level as descriptive of a complex of urologic complaints including pain 59 . Thought to be an early form of the disorder interstitial cystitis (IC), there is an expectation that a majority of patients with PBS might have a common etiology. Notably, IC has no agreed etiology, pathophysiology or treatment and nor does the less defined PBS. The prevalence of IC is estimated to be 2 in 10,000 with a female to male ratio of 10 1. Patients with IC are 10-12 times more likely to report childhood bladder problems than the general population 60 . IC is frequently associated with other chronic disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, irritable bowel syndrome, sensitive skin, fibromyalgia and allergies 61 .

Leukotriene D4 Receptor LTD4 CysLT1 Receptor Antagonists

During research into mediators of allergy and asthma in the mid-twentieth century, slow reacting substance (SRS, a bronchial smooth muscle slow contracting substance) was identified by biologists as an important endogenous factor in the pathophysiology of human asthma, without any knowledge of its chemical structure 3 . Using slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) of biological origin as the agonist 4 , the first in vitro tests were developed, and compound FPL-55712 (Fig. 11.1) identified as an antagonist of the smooth muscle contracting activity of SRS-A 5 .

Pre Ketogenic Diet Session

Food allergies, intolerances, and cultural and religious preferences require special consideration and may necessitate adjustments in the diet. Information regarding current medications and nutritional supplements is needed to determine appropriateness to the diet. Medications and supplements in suspension, syrup, elixirs, and chewable-tablet forms generally contain concentrated sources of carbohydrate, and alternatives should be used. A 3-d food diary is also recommended prior to ketogenic diet initiation to determine the child's dietary practices, food preferences, and method of nutritional intake. The ketogenic diet can be formulated for oral intake, enteral intake, or a combination of these methods.

Profiling of in Immune Biomarkers

Today, multiplex assays have all but replaced traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for cytokines allowing us to simultaneously measure proinflammatory cytokines, Th1- vs. Th2-type cytokines, growth-promoting as opposed to suppressive cytokines, and so on, in a small (0.5 ml) sample of body fluid. Multiplex bead immunoassays designed to work in conjunction with a Luminex-type instrument utilize sets of distinct fluores-cently labeled microspheres, each covalently linked to a cytokine-specific antibody 20, 21 . A combination of different color-coded beads (up to 100) in one tube allows for a simultaneous assessment of several cytokines. A flow-based instrument equipped with a reporter and classifying lasers and associated optics measures reactions that occur on the surface of colored microspheres. A high-speed digital signal processor efficiently manages the fluorescent output. The intensity of measured fluorescence is directly proportional to the concentration of the...

Agents Used to Assist in Ocular Diagnosis

Posterior segment diagnostic and therapeutic uses The integrity of the blood-retinal and retinal pigment epithelial barriers may be examined directly by retinal angiography using intravenous administration of either fluorescein sodium or indocyanine green. These agents commonly cause nausea and may precipitate serious allergic reactions in susceptible individuals.

Anti Cancer Effect Of Tulasi Leaves In Lung Cancer

Ocimum sanctum has also been shown to play a potential role in the management of immunological disorders, including allergies and asthma.171 Its ethanolic extract induced cytotoxicity at 50 g ml against fibrosarcoma cells in cultures and mediated a significant shrinkage of tumor volume in mice bearing Sarcoma 180 solid tumors, extending their life span. 172 Recent literature also attributes potential for the use of tulsi in combination with radiation therapy. The leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum affords in vivo protection against cytogenetic damage by restoring the radiation-induced depletion of glutathione transferase and other enzymes to their normal levels.173 Further studies have indicated that two flavonoids, orientin and vicenin isolated from the extract, demonstrated significant protection to the human lymphocytes in cultures against radiation lethality and also provided in vivo protection against death from radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome.174 The Ocimum sanctum...

Consequences Of Antibodies To Therapeutic Proteins

Type I hypersensitivity or IgE-mediated allergies are very rare, and most are related to the excipients present in formulation rather than the protein drug products. IgE-mediated reactions against human insulin have been reported, although is less common than with pork or beef insulin 12 . Theoretically, the type II hypersensitivity skin reaction may be a symptom of the immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins. During a type II hypersensitivity reaction, antibodies activate T-killer cells, macrophages, or complement factors to induce an immune response. However, the antibodies produced by most therapeutic proteins as a consequence of breaking B-cell tolerance and T-cells play only a minor role, if any.

Fourthgeneration Cephalosporins

Adverse reactions Hypersensitivity reactions are the most common side effects of cephalosporins they are identical to those caused by the penicillins, perhaps related to their shared f-lactam structure. Patients who are allergic to one drug class may manifest cross-reactivity to a member of the other class. There is no skin test that can reliably predict whether a patient will manifest an allergic reaction to the cephalosporins. Patients with a history of a mild or a temporally distant penicillin reaction appear to be at low risk of allergic reaction following cephalosporin administration. However, patients who have had a recent severe, immediate reaction to a penicillin should be given a cephalosporin with great caution, if at all. A positive Coombs' reaction appears frequently in patients who receive large doses of a cephalosporin, but hemolysis is rare. Cephalosporins rarely have produced bone marrow depression characterized by granulocytopenia.

Medicinal Effects Of Phlorotannins

Brown algal phlorotannins have been extensively studied for their potential health benefits and reportedly they have shown promising effects against radical-mediated oxidative stress, photodamage, cancer, allergy, diabetes, inflammation, and viral and microbial infections. Having vast range of biological activities, phlorotannins are believed to be the most promising candidates to be developed as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. This section is covering up the major biological activities of phlor-otannins isolated from brown algae.

Colloidal silver suspension for treating skin problems in tropical and decorative fish

Excerpt(s) The presence of skin lesions in tropical and decorative fish is commonplace. Whether caused by scrapes during handling or a skin disease, these ailments must be treated with great care. Otherwise, because of the extreme sensitivity of these fish, they may suffer a life-threatening upset, possibly as a result of an allergic reaction triggered by exposure to certain chemicals, and succumb. While conceivable treatment scenarios include direct injection as well as the administration of a liquid medicine orally or in powdered form in the fish feed, the easiest method, for a large number of fish, is to add therapeutic substance(s) directly to their aquarium tank water. Tests have shown that skin problems in tropical and decorative fish can be treated successfully by adding a highly dilute suspension of colloidal silver to the aquarium water in which such fish are living. Among the species which have been treated are koi, goldfish and a variety of tropical and marine fish, which...

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an obstructive airway disorder characterized by a gradually progressive and irreversible decrease in forced expiratory volume (FEVj) (Siafakas et al., 1995). The condition usually arises due to chronic bronchitis or emphysema and the airflow obstruction may be accompanied by airway hyperreactivity. Asthma is generally differentiated from COPD, although distinguishing the two in a patient who smokes and has allergies can be difficult. This decrease is due to narrowing of the airway lumen and occurs as a direct result of disturbances in airway and interstitial lung tissue. There are a number of known risk factors for COPD, including air pollution, recurrent bronchopulmonary infection, socio-economic status and childhood history of respiratory infection. A strong relationship between age and COPD is also noted, with occurrence rare before 40 years and incidence increasing rapidly until 60-70 years of age when it becomes more stable, which...

Colloidal silver honey and helichrysum oil antiseptic composition and method of application

Silver sulfadiazine cream, is disclosed as an apparatus in U.S. Pat. No. 4,551,139 to Plaas. The use of silver sulfadiazine with reference to possible aerosol dispersal of wet spray of hydrophilic ointment is found in U.S. Pat. No. 3,761,590 to Fox. Helichrysum angustifolium and italicum (also referred to as immortelle and everlasting) are natural plant oils and are recognized as essential oils with properties promoting the healing process, in human and animal, of traumatic wounds including burns. Helichrysum is the distilled oil produced from flowering heads of Helichrysum Angustifolium D.C. or Italicum and is generally known for the ability to enhance human or animal wound healing and is generally accepted to have antispasmodic, analgesic, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory characteristics in relation to treatment of human or animal trauma. It is also reported to abate bleeding from wounds and in the reduction of scar tissue (The Complete Book of Essential Oils & Aroma-Therapy, pages...

Conclusion evidencebased treatment of central pain

Lamotrigine has been shown to reduce pain in CPSP in one trial 14 but in SCI pain, there was no effect of lamotrigine although there was some suggestion that it reduced pain in the subgroup of patients with incomplete SCI 26 . Lamotrigine has few side effects and slow dose escalation limits the risk of serious allergic reactions and so it may be considered an alternative analgesic in central pain.

Diseases Affecting The Vasopressin System

Antidiuretic peptides are the primary treatment for central DI, with desmopressin being the preferred peptide. For patients with central DI who cannot tolerate antidiuretic peptides because of side effects or allergic reactions, other treatment options are available. Chlorpropamide, an oral sul-fonylurea, potentiates the action of small or residual amounts of circulating vasopressin and will reduce urine volume in more than half of all patients with central DI. A dose of 125-500 mg daily is particularly effective in patients with partial central DI. If polyuria is not controlled satisfactorily with chlorpropamide alone, addition of a thiazide diuretic (see Chapter 28) to the regimen usually results in an adequate reduction in the volume of urine. Carbamazepine (800-1000 mg daily in divided doses) and clofibrate (1-2 g daily in divided doses) also reduce urine volume in patients with central DI. Long-term use of these agents may induce serious adverse effects therefore, car-bamazepine...

Metabolism And Inactivation

Earlier insulin preparations contained a large number of protein contaminants thought to be immunogenic and hence the cause of lipodystrophy, insulin allergy and sometimes antibody-mediated insulin resistance in many patients. Monocomponent (MC)-insulin and human insulin are virtually free of these peptides and are therefore very rarely accompanied by the above-mentioned immunological side effects. In this respect, however, human insulin offers only a little advantage over MC-insulin although human insulin is the least immunogenic (Gyimesi and Ivanyi, 1989 Zenobi, 1991). One disadvantage of human insulin is that about 20 of patients treated with it experience a change in hypoglycaemia symptoms during the course of their illness. While autonomic symptoms become weaker or disappear, patients have to react to neuroglycogenic symptoms which normally remain constant. However, the incidence of hypoglycaemic events does not change during treatment with human insulin (Zenobi, 1991). 6.4...

Oral sideeffects of drugs

Medicaments left in contact with or applied directly to the oral mucosa can lead to inflammation or ulceration the possibility of allergy should also be borne in mind. Aspirin tablets allowed to dissolve in the sulcus for the treatment of toothache can lead to a white patch followed by ulceration.

Petasites frigidus L Frigs

Arctic butterbur, more commonly known as petasites or Western coltsfoot, is primarily used in Western herbal medicine for the treatment of migraine headaches, allergies, and urinary incontinence. Petasites contains potentially toxic pyrollizidine alkaloids (PAs). Plants that contain PAs are prohibited from internal use in the European Union. Petasites is being cultivated to be low in or free of PAs. Petasites may also be mistakenly traded as American coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara). For the differentiation of these two species, see entry for Tussilago.

Functional Foods And Disease Prevention

Further, soy protein inclusions are getting highly recognized by women population due to their ability to reduce the risk of heart diseases by lowering blood cholesterol levels, promoting bone health, and easing symptoms of menopause. Further, there is an increasing demand for products targeting children. Active ingredients are added in these products and are capable of supporting brain development of infants, immunity enhancement, and acting against allergy reactions in the body. Also some of these products are aiming at promoting healthier eating habits and active life styles among children to prevent the unprecedented growth of obesity and related complications. Functional protein, peptides, and amino acids from different food sources are also renowned, and among them, soy protein concentrates are gaining much popularity attributed to the functional properties specifically toward women population. Other than that, there are products that are becoming popular for...


Combination therapy is the cornerstone of postoperative pain management. Problems arise when it is not possible to use one of the constituents of our combinations. For example, NSAIDs may have to be withheld in the patient with severe dyspepsia, previous NSAID allergy, those on anticoagulants, or when there is significant renal impairment. While the worst excesses of pain can be reduced or removed by regional anesthetic techniques, when these are discontinued acetaminophen paracetamol and opioid combinations may not be sufficient to provide good quality relief.

Case Scenario

It is important to first determine the full medical history, drug history and find out any drug allergies that may be present. In this situation it is difficult to follow the WHO pain ladder. Andreas needs strong opioid analgesics. Though we can supplement this with acetaminophen, using NSAIDS in hypovolemic patients with major trauma should be done with care as there is risk of renal toxicity and platelet dysfunction. Adding weak opioids is another option. Neuraxial block can provide good quality analgesia, though this could prove risky in the presence of hypovolemia and coagulopathy.

Blood Brain Barrier

Antihistamine drugs have long been used to treat symptoms of allergy such as sneezing, itching, watery discharge from the eyes and nose, and possibly wheezing. The older or first-generation histamine Hj receptor antagonists such as Benadryl and Tavist effectively relieve these peripheral symptoms. However, these medications, of the drug class ethanolamines, are very lipo-philic and readily cross the blood-brain barrier to interact with histamine Hj receptors in the CNS as well. As a result, they also cause central effects such as diminished alertness, slowed reaction times, and sedation. The newer or second-generation histamine Hj receptor antagonists such as Claritin and Hismanal have been chemically designed to be less lipophilic and not cross the blood-brain barrier at therapeutic doses. Therefore, these medications which are of the drug class piperidines, eliminate the peripheral symptoms of allergy without this depression of CNS activity.

Therapeutic Uses

The capacity of clonidine to activate postsynaptic a2 receptors in vascular smooth muscle has been exploited in a limited number of patients whose autonomic failure is so severe that reflex sympathetic responses on standing are absent postural hypotension is thus marked. Since the central effect of clonidine on blood pressure is unimportant in these patients, the drug can elevate blood pressure and improve the symptoms of postural hypotension. Among the other off-label uses of clonidine are atrial fibrillation, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), constitutional growth delay in children, cyclosporine-associated nephrotoxicity, Tourette's syndrome, hyper-hidrosis, mania, posthepatic neuralgia, psychosis, restless leg syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and allergy-induced inflammatory reactions in patients with extrinsic asthma.


Use of b adrenergic agonists in the treatment of asthma is discussed in Chapter 27. ALLERGIC REACTIONS Epi is the drug of choice to reverse the manifestations of serious acute hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., from food, bee sting, or drug allergy). A subcutaneous injection of Epi rapidly relieves itching, hives, and swelling of lips, eyelids, and tongue. In some patients, careful intravenous infusion of Epi may be required to ensure prompt pharmacological effects. This treatment may be life saving when edema of the glottis threatens airway patency or when there is hypotension or shock in patients with anaphylaxis. In addition to its cardiovascular effects, Epi activates b receptors that suppress the release from mast cells of mediators such as histamine and leukotrienes. Although glucocorticoids and antihistamines frequently are administered to patients with severe hypersensitivity reactions, Epi remains the mainstay.


A severe allergic reaction may follow oral or parenteral administration of a drug. Anaphylactic reactions in dentistry may follow the administration of a drug or contact with substances such as latex in surgical gloves. In general, the more rapid the onset of the reaction the more profound it tends to be. Symptoms may develop within minutes and rapid treatment is essential. Anaphylactic reactions may also be associated with additives and excipients in foods and medicines (see Excipients, p. 2). Refined arachis (peanut) oil, which may be present in some medicinal products, is unlikely to cause an allergic reaction nevertheless it is wise to check the full formula of preparations which may contain allergenic fats or oils (including those for topical application, particularly if they are intended for use in the mouth or for application to the nasal mucosa).


Since the US government's ban on ephedra-based products, there has been an obvious decline in its prevalent use in that country. However, patients may still present for pain evaluation with a history of use of ephedra or be taking related compounds, many of which are readily available and possess potent dose-dependent increases in heart rate and in blood pressure. Ma huang, an ephedra-based alkaloid, is similar in structure to amphetamines and is traditionally indicated for the treatment of various respiratory disorders such as the flu, common cold, allergies, and bronchitis. Additionally, it is commonly used as an appetite suppressant (Hughes et al. 2004). Ma huang or ephedra acts as a sympathomimetic agent and exhibits potent positive inotropic and chronotropic responses. In addition to its antitussive actions, ephedra may also possess bacteriostatic properties (Kaye et al. 2000). As a cardiovascular and respiratory sympathomimetic, it utilizes an a-adrenergic or -adrenergic...

O Current Status

The spectacular success of antibiotics in the treatment of human diseases has prompted the expansion of their use into several related fields. Extensive use of their antimicrobial power is made in veterinary medicine. The discovery that low-level administration of antibiotics to meat-producing animals resulted in faster growth, lower mortality, and better quality has led to the use of these products as feed supplements. Several antibiotics are used to control bacterial and fungal diseases of plants. Their use in food preservation is being studied carefully. Indeed, such uses of antibiotics have necessitated careful studies of their long-term effects on humans and their effects on various commercial processes. For example, foods that contain low-level amounts of antibiotics may be able to produce allergic reactions in hypersensitive persons, or the presence of antibiotics in milk may interfere with the manufacture of cheese.


Leathwood et al. conducted a double-blind crossover study with 128 volunteers and concluded that, compared with placebo, valerian significantly improved subjective sleep quality in habitually poor or irregular sleepers.84 However, placebo effects were marked in some studies, and in some cases beneficial effects of valerian were not seen until after 2-4 weeks of therapy. The adverse effects of valerian include gastrointestinal upset, allergies, restless sleep, headache and mydriasis. Valerian overdoses have the major effect of central nervous system depression.85


Marine brown seaweeds are abundant in phlorotannins compared to other marine plants. These phlorotannins are a highly diverse group depending on their structure, and polymerizations and oligomers serve as most promising bioactive materials. Many reports have been published on strong activities of phlorotannin oligomers against oxidative stress, cancer, inflammation, allergy diabetes, and few other disorders in vitro and in vivo. Among them, E. cava has been studied extensively as it produces number of highly active phlorotannins. Phlorotannin derivatives are capable of modulating cellular signaling and thereby they regulate the adverse conditions of the body. Finally, it can be suggested that marine brown algal phenolic extracts or isolated phlorotannins should be developed as medicinal foods or therapeutics for human health applications.


Each patient has a complete history and physical examination, and an extensive 1-h evaluation with the epilepsy nurse. The nurse explains the rigors of the diet and explores family background to determine which family members will primarily oversee the diet's preparation and administration. The family also has a consultation with the dietitian, who assesses the patient's nutritional status, eating habits, allergies, and other dietary concerns.

Solid tumors

Spitler et al. (1987) conducted a trial of a murine monoclonal antimelanoma antibody-RTA Immunotoxin (XOMAZYME-MEL) in 22 patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. The dose of Immunotoxin administered ranged from 0.01 mg kg daily for 5 days to 1 mg kg daily for 4 days (total dose 3.2-300 mg). Side effects observed in most patients were transient symptoms ascribable to VLS. Symptoms consistent with mild allergic reactions were observed in three patients. The side effects were generally transient and reversible. Encouraging clinical results were observed (1 complete response and 9 mixed response stabilization of the disease), even after a single course of a low dose of Immunotoxin. In addition, localization of antibody and RTA to sites of metastatic disease was demonstrated by immunoperoxidase staining of biopsy specimens. In a study by Gonzalez et al. (1991) 20 patients with metastatic melanoma were treated with escalating doses of XomaZyme-Mel given as a single intravenous infusion...

Physician attitudes

The US congress has shown its support of research into CAM by establishing the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM) at the National Institutes of Health in 1992 and designating that office as the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine with an annual budget of US 50 million.21 This organization has started a number of large clinical trials that are expected to stimulate further research. In addition, the OAM has funded 13 research centers at institutions across the US that are carrying out a research agenda in various broad clinical areas. These areas include pain, HIV AIDS, addiction, aging, cancer, women's health issues, general medical conditions, pediatric conditions, neurological disorders, cardiovascular diseases, chiropractic, and asthma, allergy and immunology.

Immune Events

*Heart Institute (InCor), School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil immunology Investigation Institute, National Institute for Science and Technology, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil *Clinical Immunology and Allergy Division, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Acute HZ

Although the classic combination of unilateral dermato-mal rash and pain often leads to prompt and correct diagnosis, studies have shown significant incorrect clinical diagnosis rates in up to 20 percent of cases. The most common confusing diagnoses are herpes simplex type 1 (labial), type 2 (genital), or allergy. Pain accompanies acute HZ in over 90 percent of cases. Antiviral drugs (acyclovir, valaciclovir, famciclovir, and brivudin) control viral DNA replication and significantly reduce acute pain, hasten rash healing, and shorten the period of viral shedding (infectivity).45'46 I The effectiveness of analgesic drugs has not been well studied with regard to whether paracetamol, paracetamol with opioid, or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the drugs of choice. Some patients require strong opioid medication. The place of drugs more commonly associated with PHN management is unproven but there is expert consensus that they have a place in the management of acute pain....

Prophylactic Uses

Untoward effects Erythromycin rarely causes serious side effects. Allergic reactions include fever, eosinophilia, and rash, either alone or in combination these manifestations resolve after therapy is stopped. Cholestatic hepatitis, the most striking side effect, is caused primarily by erythromycin estolate and rarely by the ethylsuccinate or the stearate and may be a hypersensitivity reaction to the estolate ester. The illness starts after 1-3 weeks of treatment and presents with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. These symptoms soon are followed by jaundice, fever, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, and elevated plasma transaminases. Liver biopsy reveals cholestasis and periportal inflammation, sometimes with necrosis of neighboring parenchymal cells. Findings usually resolve within a few days after drug cessation and rarely are prolonged.

Parenteral Emulsions

Emulsifiers Natural lecithin is one of the most widely used emulsifiers because it is metabolized in the body. However, type I allergic reaction to soybean lecithin emulsified in lipid solutions has been observed (213). Among the synthetic emulsifying agents, block copolymers of polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene (poloxamer) have gained increasing interest for parenteral emulsions. Other examples of emulsifiers commonly found in parenteral formulations are listed in Table 9.


In the U.S., idoxuridine is approved only for topical treatment of HSV keratitis, although it is available elsewhere for topical treatment of herpes labialis, genitalis, and zoster. In ocular HSV infections, topical idoxuridine is more effective in epithelial than in stromal infections. Adverse reactions include pain, pruritus, inflammation, and edema involving the eye or lids allergic reactions occur rarely.

Eligibility Criteria

Pts with a cytologically or histologically confirmed advanced or recurrent gastric cancer refractory to conventional therapy were candidates for this study. Pts with a serious infection including HBsAg, HCVab, syphilis, HIV positive, uncontrollable hypertension, brain metastasis showing symptoms, allergy against anthracycline-type drugs, cardiofunction disorders (e.g., pt with suspected congestive heart failure, pt with a treatment history of congestive heart failure, pt with a history of myocardial infarction, and pt with an electrocardiographic abnormality who requires pharmacotherapy.), vascular disorder including a history of pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and peripheral artery occlusive disease were excluded. Pts were also excluded if they were pregnant or lactating, or showing gastrointestinal bleeding. Also, pts for whose principal investigator or investigators considered ineligible were excluded. Eligibility criteria also included the following (1) World Health...

M Protamine Sulphate

Cautions see above also monitor activated partial thromboplastin time or other appropriate blood clotting parameters increased risk of allergic reaction to protamine (including previous treatment with prot-amine or protamine insulin, allergy to fish, men who are infertile or who have had a vasectomy) Side-effects nausea, vomiting, lassitude, flushing, hypotension, hypertension, bradycardia, dyspnoea, rebound bleeding, back pain hypersensitivity reactions (including angioedema, anaphylaxis) and pulmonary oedema reported Dose


Measurement of serum calcitonin is used diagnostically to detect medullary thyroid cancer, especially in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2. Therapeutically, it is used in the acute management of hypercalcemia. It also is approved for Paget's disease, generally by subcutaneous injection because of limited bioavailability of the intranasal form, and for the therapy of osteoporosis. After initial therapy at 100 units day, the dose typically is reduced to 50 units three times a week. Side effects include allergic reactions, nausea, hand swelling, urticaria, and rarely intestinal cramping.

Fibrinolytic drugs

Possible peptic ulceration, heavy vaginal bleeding, severe hypertension, active pulmonary disease with cavitation, acute pancreatitis, pericarditis, bacterial endocarditis, and oesophageal varices also in the case of streptokinase, previous allergic reactions to either streptokinase or anistreplase (no longer available). Prolonged persistence of antibodies to streptokinase and anistreplase (no longer available) can reduce the effectiveness of subsequent treatment therefore, streptokinase should not be used again beyond 4 days of first administration of either streptokinase or anistreplase. Side-effects Side-effects of thrombolytics are mainly nausea and vomiting and bleeding. When thrombolytics are used in myocardial infarction, reperfusion arrhythmias and recurrent ischaemia and angina may occur. Reperfusion may also cause cerebral and pulmonary oedema. Hypotension can also occur and can usually be controlled by elevating the patient's legs, or by reducing the rate of infusion or...


Conjunctivitis is an inflammatory process of the conjunctiva that varies in severity from mild hyperemia to severe purulent discharge. Common causes of conjunctivitis include viruses, allergies, environmental irritants, contact lenses, and chemicals. Less common causes include other infectious pathogens, immune-mediated reactions, associated systemic diseases, and tumors of the conjunctiva

Urtica dioica L

Stinging nettle leaf is predominantly used in Western herb-alism as a nourishing blood tonic, diuretic, blood purifier, antiarthritic, and for seasonal allergies. Three subspecies of U. dioica occur in North America ssp. dioica, gracilis, and holosericea (Boufford 1997). Urtica dioica ssp. dioica is a naturalized introduction from Europe. These subspecies differ in floral arrangement, leaf and stem indumentum, and chromosome number. All may be found in trade and no distinction is made among the three species medicinally, so there is no need to distinguish them for quality control purposes. However, in order to clarify some of the variation that a microscopist might encounter, the main differences in the subspecies are given here. This variation has been incorporated into the description. Another species of Urtica, U. urens, can be found among U. dioica supplies but is considered interchangeable in use. Differentiation between these two species is also provided.

Fresh Frozen Plasma

A volume expander Side-effects allergic reactions including chills, fever, bronchospasm adult respiratory distress syndrome Available from Regional Blood Transfusion Services Note A preparation of solvent detergent treated human plasma (frozen) from pooled donors is available from Octa-pharma (Octaplas )

Drug Interactions

Chamomile contains coumarins and may enhance the effect of prescription anticoagulants. The herb is an antispasmodic and slows the motility of the GI tract. This action might decrease the absorption of drugs. Chamomile preparations may be adulterated with chamomile pollen. This may cause allergy, anaphylaxis, and atopic dermatitis.


With the understanding of the structure-function relationship of bacteria protein toxins, we are able to apply genetic engineering techniques to delete the active site of a toxin without affecting the antigencity. The useful portion of a toxin can then be selected to serve as adjuvants and antigen deliver systems in new vaccine designs. Thus, structure-based vaccine designs have allowed us to induce specific types of immunity against selected structures, or small peptide epitopes, rather than the disease-causing whole bacteria or virus. This has led our future development program of vaccines to a new perspective dimension. Certain risks associated with inactivated whole-organism vaccines could also be overruled. We hope with the input of structure-based vaccine designs, to not only develop vaccines to prevent infectious diseases, but also to turn vaccine development in another dimension for the treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and allergies.

51 Ways to Reduce Allergies

51 Ways to Reduce Allergies

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