Alternative Medicine Ebooks
The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) of the National Institutes of Health (http nccam.nih.gov ) has created a link to the National Library of Medicine's databases to facilitate research for articles that specifically relate to colloidal silver and complementary medicine. To search the database, go to the following Web site Select CAM on PubMed. Enter colloidal silver (or synonyms) into the search box. Click Go. The following references provide information on particular aspects of complementary and alternative medicine that are related to colloidal silver
In 1993 a representative population survey of 3004 individuals 15 years or older living in South Australia assessed the rates of use and types of alternative medicine and therapists used by this population (Victoria, NSW and Queensland Departments of Health, 1997). The findings of this study were similar to those found in the USA. From that survey we know that Aus 621 million was spent on alternative medicines in Australia in 1993. A sum of Aus 309 million was spent on alternative therapists. The percentage share and dollar value of those (non-prescribed) is shown in Table 31.3. Table 31.3. The percentage market shares and value of alternative medicines (non-prescribed) in Australia. From Victoria, NSW and Queensland Departments of Health (1997). Table 31.3. The percentage market shares and value of alternative medicines (non-prescribed) in Australia. From Victoria, NSW and Queensland Departments of Health (1997).
(Without going into too much detail, the best example of how EBM is anti-science is the application of EBM to alternative medicine.21 This elevates the idea that clinical trial evidence is the highest form of evidence to ludicrous heights and shows what happens when observations are made outside contextual scientific knowledge. This activity can be done only by people who do not have that knowledge, or who are unable to understand its implications. There are indeed problems if basic science alone is used to treat patients, but from the knowledge of basic science one can formulate properly grounded and clinically testable hypotheses. Unfortunately, the methods of EBM are now being used to provide answers to questions in science.22,23
Also been used as worm medicine and folk remedy for gout treatment in Pacific (Novaczek, 2002). Local name for sea lettuces in Philippines is gam gamet-IIokano which is the most popular and highly prized sea vegetables in the Ilocandia, Philippines (Novaczek, 2002). In Philippines, the most common food preparation of sea lettuces is salad. Sea lettuces collected from the sea were washed and then added to prepare salad or soup. The translucent, slightly bitter leaves make these seaweeds perfect as salad ingredients. After washing and blanching with lukewarm water, the sea lettuces are mixed with crushed ripe tomatoes, sliced green mango, and sliced onion, complemented with native fermented fish to taste. Similar in Philippines, the most common food preparation of sea lettuces in Indonesia is salad (Istini et al., 1998).
In the early 1990s, by an act of congress, the NIH formed an Office of Alternative Medicine, which subsequently became the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). The main objective of the center was to fund basic and clinical research in various complementary alternative medicine (CAM) therapies with the ultimate goal of proving clinician's evidence-based approaches. With the support from NIH, the first consensus guidelines for clinicians summarized the evidence on the use and effectiveness of acupuncture in a variety of medical conditions. Although the consensus statement did not strongly recommend the use of acupuncture for all the pain syndromes, acupuncture has been accepted as a technique for peripheral sensory stimulation in the therapy of painful syndromes. Similar to other CAM researches, the validity of clinical acupuncture studies and their outcomes are significantly affected by the methodological approach employed. Important study variables...
There has been a recognized increasing demand for and acceptance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies in the United States. In a national survey published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) in 1998, Eisenberg et al. found that the number of visits to alternative therapy centers was twice that of visits to primary care physicians and that the money spent on complementary and alternative medicine was nearly equal to out-of-pocket expenditures for conventional care (Eisenberg et al. 1998). Most multidisciplinary pain centers have adopted some form of complementary and alternative medicine in an effort to treat neuropathic pain syndromes. Much of this effort has been prompted by patient demand for nonpharmacologic alternatives to treat pain. The complementary treatments often used include those listed in Table 23.5. Table 23.5 Complementary and alternative medicine. Table 23.5 Complementary and alternative medicine.
Unencumbered by significant side effects and efficacious, nonpharmacologic therapies are highly recommended in the treatment of both acute and chronic pediatric headaches. Such modalities include biofeedback with relaxation and cognitive-behavioral therapies and may modify the multiple factors that trigger and or exacerbate the migraine headaches and disability cycle.113 I Less information is currently available for acupuncture and alternative medicine therapies.114 II , 115 III
Consumer research shows that almost 50 of Australians have used (non-prescribed) alternative medicine at least once in the past year, while 18 have used it two or more times. Twenty per cent of people have visited at least one alternative practitioner in the past 12 months and 30 are likely to do so in the near future. The attitude held by 49 of respondents is that conventional and alternative medicines are complementary. There is a strong belief (65 ) in the validity of alternative medicine. Thirty-one per cent of people intend to visit a naturopath, 26 intend to use acupuncture and 19 intend to visit a homeopath for health care (L. Dangar, personal communication).
The frequent comorbidities seen in the elderly often results in polypharmacy. The effect of drug interactions and the altered handling of drugs in the elderly increases the risk of complications. Caution has to be exercised in developing a management plan with appropriate consideration to side effects and potential interactions.56 Other chapters detail the management of specific conditions and discuss the pharmacology of individual drug groups. In a general sense, the World Health Organization (WHO) analgesic ladder can guide initial pain management. There is a principle in prescribing, particularly in the elderly, to start with a low dose and slowly titrate to benefit or side effects. The aim of pain management is to improve pain and optimize function, particularly with regard to daily activities. The eradication of pain is usually unrealistic and the lowest drug dose will often not provide optimal analgesia. Optimal treatment typically combines pharmacological and nonpharmacological...
Folk remedies prepared from species of Rauwolfia, a plant genus belonging to the Apocynaceae family, were reported as early as 1563. The root of the species Rauwolfia serpentina has been used for centuries as an antidote to stings and bites of insects, to reduce fever, as a stimulant to uterine contractions, for insomnia, and particularly for the treatment of insanity. Its use in hypertension was recorded in the Indian literature in 1918, but not until 1949 did hypotensive properties of Rauwolfia spp. appear in the Western literature.51 Rauwolfia preparations were introduced in psychiatry for the treatment of schizophrenia in the early 1950s, following confirmation of the folk remedy reports on their use in mentally deranged patients. By the end of the 1960s, however, the drug had been replaced by more efficacious neurotropic agents. Reserpine and its preparations remain useful in the control of mild essential hypertension.
Roy Upton, herbalist, has been working and practicing professionally as an herbalist since 1981. Trained in ayurvedic, Chinese, Caribbean, and Western herbal medicine traditions, Roy is the founder, executive director, and editor of the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia is cofounder, past president, and current vice president of the American Herbalists Guild (AHG) and serves on the General Chapters Committee of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and botanical expert advisory committees of AOAC International, the American Botanical Council, and NSF International. Roy is visiting faculty for Tai Sophia (Laurel, Maryland) and lecturer for the Complementary and Alternative Medicine Program at the University of California School of Pharmacy (Los Angeles, California). Roy is also the staff herbalist for the California-based herbal supplements company Planetary Herbals and is a member of the Standards Committee of the American Herbal Products Association.
Originally drugs and leads were derived from natural sources. These natural sources are still important sources of lead compounds and new drugs, however the majority of lead compounds are now discovered in the laboratory using a variety of sources, such as local folk remedies (ethnopharmacology), investigations into the biochemistry of the pathology The screening of local folk remedies (ethnopharmacology) has been a fruitful source of lead compounds and many important therapeutic agents. For example, the antimalarial quinine from cinchona bark, the cardiac stimulants from foxgloves (Fig. 1.5) and the antidepressant reserpine isolated from Rauwolfia serpentina.
Knowledge of traditional medicine affords a valuable approach to the development of new anticancer drugs. The search for plant species related to those used in folk medicine using chemotaxonomic principles is another successful approach for developing new drugs. A fair number of anticancer drugs currently on the market were developed based upon their use in traditional medicine as a folk remedy, although not all of them were known to be active against cancer. This section of the chapter covers the natural supplements that are currently being used as treatments against cancers or other diseases. Note, however, that these products are also the original source for the development of important anticancer drugs currently in the market.
Between a quarter to half of the population in developed countries are using complementary or alternative therapies at a cost of nearly 30 billion in the United States alone. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) spans many broad categories such as culturally based systems of medicine, other systems of medicine such as chiropractic and homeopathy, and individual practices such as massage and meditation.
Alternative medicine Practices not generally recognized by the medical community as standard or conventional medical approaches and used instead of standard treatments. Alternative medicine includes the taking of dietary supplements, megadose vitamins, and herbal preparations the drinking of special teas and practices such as massage therapy, magnet therapy, spiritual healing, and meditation. nih Complementary and alternative medicine CAM. Forms of treatment that are used in addition to (complementary) or instead of (alternative) standard treatments. These practices are not considered standard medical approaches. CAM includes dietary supplements, megadose vitamins, herbal preparations, special teas, massage therapy, magnet therapy, spiritual healing, and meditation. NIH
Why would we stress the importance of the history of pain medicine History helps us understand our own place in the universe as healers. We need to appreciate our past in order to gain a sense of connectivity and perspective that is inherent in establishing our identity as a professional. Hundreds of years hence, our theoretical constructs and clinical practices may be considered quaint and outmoded, but the essence of professionalism and the critical, scientific study of medicine will remain unchanged through the ages. Like the times before us, our current era is an exciting one for the study and treatment of pain. With rapidly evolving capacity to elucidate ever more microscopic scientific detail of the anatomy and physiology of pain, developing technologies yield a vast scientific understanding and lexicon of pain. As developments in laboratory and clinical science continue to increase our capacity to further reduce pain to its biological components, simultaneously we must possess...
His bibliography includes over 300 medical papers and more than 200 abstracts. Dr. Preuss has edited or co-edited six books and three symposia published in well-established journals. He is the co-author of two books written for the lay public, The Prostate Cure and Maitake Magic. In 1976, Dr. Preuss was elected to membership in the American Society of Clinical Investigations. He is currently an advisory editor for six journals. His previous government appointments included 4 years on the Advisory Council for the National Institute on Aging, 2 years on the Advisory Council of the director of the NIH, and 2 years on the Advisory Council for the Office of Alternative Medicine of the NIH. He has been a member of many other peer research review committees for the NIH and American Heart Association and is now a member of the National Cholesterol Education Program of the NHLBI.
Patient stories may be dull or fascinating - an esthetic matter - but as a clinical matter they constitute evidence, often neglected evidence. Anecdote of course occupies the bottom rung in the hierarchy of evidence-based medicine. It is often dismissed out of hand as unscientific, especially when patients claim to receive benefits from therapies that physicians distrust, as with conventional and alternative medicine. Such testimonials are worthless as evidential support, as one EBM textbook puts it 11 . Anecdote is evidence nonetheless, not always or automatically worthless, and at times it may be the best evidence available. Certainly, despite the recent boom in clinical practice guidelines, the percentage of healthcare based on high-quality or gold-standard evidence is always very low 12 . In a classic study, physician Eric Cassell asks how a clinician can know when the patient is suffering. His iconoclastic answer Ask the patient 13 . Suffering often accompanies intractable pain -...
More stringent government interventions are currently being put into place, such as the Dietary Supplement and Nonprescription Drug Consumer Protection Act. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), established in 1992, is focused on encouraging more scientific studies, training of CAM researchers, and provision of reliable and accurate information to both the public and health care professional. The Nutrient Databank System, maintained by the USDA, has expanded to now include data about flavonoid, carotenoid, and isoflavone composition of foods. Additional databases listing dietary supplement ingredients are also in development.
A good place to find general background information on CAM is the National Library of Medicine. It has prepared within the MEDLINEplus system an information topic page dedicated to complementary and alternative medicine. To access this page, go to the MEDLINEplus site at
Medical schools in the US and Europe are responding to the new awareness of CAM's pervasiveness. Forty percent of European medical schools offer some form of CAM training.18 A survey of family practice residency program directors and US medical school family medicine department chairs revealed that nearly 30 percent were currently teaching some form of complementary or alternative medicine.19 Another 12 percent were either starting to teach or considering teaching such a course. Most of these courses were elective. According to another survey of CAM course directors from 53 medical schools in the US, course topics included acupuncture, herbs and botanicals, meditation and relaxation, spirituality faith prayer, chiropractic, homeopathy, and nutrition and diets.20 The US congress has shown its support of research into CAM by establishing the Office of Alternative Medicine (OAM) at the National Institutes of Health in 1992 and designating that office as the National Center for...
Taught widely in medical schools nor generally available in US hospitals. As we have seen, these alternative therapies are becoming more available in conventional medical settings and are being taught in medical schools.18,20 A broader definition of complementary and alternative medicine is those medical systems, practices, interventions, applications, theories, or claims that are currently not part of the dominant or conventional medical system in that society.23 Under this definition, the list of practices that are considered complementary or alternative medicine will continually change as society changes and as those practices supported by research become incorporated into mainstream medicine. Eskinazi24 proposed a refined definition of alternative medicine as a broad set of healthcare practices that are not readily integrated into the dominant healthcare model because they pose challenges to diverse societal beliefs and practices. The idea of a challenge to conventional practice...
Use of herbal agents has become increasingly popular in the treatment of pain (Kaufman et al. 2002) agents used for a variety of pain complaints are listed in Table 5-15. Often framed as natural remedies, herbal agents are often believed to be safe and devoid of adverse effects and therefore may go unreported. It is important to make inquiries into the patient's use of herbs, because these may be associated with significant adverse effects and drug interactions when unknowingly combined with prescribed medications (Ernst 2000).
CRPS represents a very complicated pathophysiological disturbance, further complicated by its biopsychosocial complications.38 The pain is disproportionate to the initiating stimulus, and the consequences are likewise disproportionate. The specific initiating factor is often unknown, and the specific pathophysiological changes are also unknown. Prevention is therefore difficult or impossible.39 Specific therapy is therefore not possible, so generalized functional restoration must occur. This is itself a difficult concept, as there are few studies that have been able to define the active modality or combination in overall successful comprehensive pain rehabilitation programs. General principles are necessarily espoused on reasonable empiric bases which sound logical.40 III If there is acceptance by both practitioner and patient, then positive results might occur. If one or both do not subscribe to the treatment premise, then no improvement will occur, or the situation might become even...
Work or home ergonomic issues for CLBP patients as well. Complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, such as those who provide massage therapy, acupuncture, manipulation, or other manual medicine techniques, also have an increasingly large role in the care of patients with acute and chronic spine problems.
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Program profile international liaison brings global vision to OAM. Complementary and Alternative Medicine at the NIH 1996 3 3. Kristofferson SS, Atkin PA, Shenfield GM. Uptake of alternative medicine letter . Lancet 1996 347 972. MacLennan AH, Wilson DH, Taylor AW. Prevalence and cost of alternative medicine in Australia. Lancet 1996 347 569-572.
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