Introduction

Animal models of nociception constitute a major part of pre-clinical studies in the search for new analgesic drugs. A large number of different animal models of nociception are available, each representing a different pain state in humans, such as inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain, hyperalgesia, neuropathic pain and visceral pain (2). The writhing test to determine acute nociception in rodents was first described in rats by Vander and Margolin in 1956 (3). The writhing response is induced...

Prostanoids

Biosynthesis Prostanoids i.e. prostaglandin(PG)E2, PGF2a, PGD2, prosta- cyclin(PGI2), and thromboxane(TX)A2 are lipid autacoids which are immediately released outside the cell after intracellular biosynthesis. This occurs probably through the action ofMRP4 ABCC4 (multidrug resistance protein 4 adenosine triphosphate-binding cassettes, subfamily C, member 4), an adenosine triphosphate-dependent export pump for organic anions (1). Prostanoids modulate a wide variety of physiologic and...

Methods

All operations carried out at 4 C unless otherwise noted. 3.1. Wash Cells (Day 1) 1. Suspend frozen cells in 10 volumes homogenization buffer without detergent. (20 g wet weight cells + 200 ml Buffer). 2. Stir until suspended at room temp 1 2 h. 3. Centrifuge 20 min at 10,000 xg (Beckman JA-13 rotor 8,000 rpm). 4. Discard Supernatant (add bleach to 1 to disinfect). 3.2. Solubilisation 1. Resuspend cells in 10 volumes (w v) homogenization buffer. 2. Add decyl-maltoside (C10M) to 1.5 final drop...

COX2 brief overview of the various dilution steps of the standard

Standard number Final concentration pg ml Standard pl Assay buffer pl Dilution 2 2,500 500 of St. 1 500 1 2 3 1,250 500 of St. 2 500 1 2 4 625 500 of St. 3 500 1 2 5 313 500 of St. 4 500 1 2 6 156 500 of St. 5 500 1 2 7 78.1 500 of St. 6 500 1 2 8 39.1 500 of St. 7 500 1 2 7. After centrifugation, different layers should be apparent in Fig. 1. Different cell layers formed after centrifugation. 3. Pipet 3 ml Percoll solution (74 ) in a falcon tube made of polystyrene and put a thin polystyrene...

Materials

Enzymatic Reaction Using Purified Enzymes 1. Ovine PGHS-1 or human recombinant PGHS-2 can be obtained from commercial sources such as Cayman Chemical (Ann Arbor, MI) or Oxford Biomedical Research, Inc. (Oxford, MI). 2. The working solution (500 pM) of hematin (H-3281, Sigma, MO) is prepared by dissolving 3.2 mg of hematin in 10 ml of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). After vortexing until complete dissolution of the hematin, the solution is kept at room temperature in an amber vial. In these...

COX2 purification table

Protein Activity Activity Fold Step (mg) (units) (units mg) purification Yield ( ) Fig. 2. SDS-PAGE of purification steps for recombinant human COX-1 and COX-2. 2 mg total protein were loaded per lane on a 10-20 10 x 10 cm mini-gel and stained with colloidal Coomassie. Fig. 2. SDS-PAGE of purification steps for recombinant human COX-1 and COX-2. 2 mg total protein were loaded per lane on a 10-20 10 x 10 cm mini-gel and stained with colloidal Coomassie. 1. Aliquot into polypropylene tubes and...

Notes

For C18, columns without a reservoir solvents were applied by attaching the columns to a syringe filled with the solvents and consistent pressure is applied. It is difficult to be consistent using this technique and thus variation between samples is very likely. In addition, one can only run up to six columns at a time. A much improved technique is to use columns with reservoirs attached to a manifold (such as the one from Varian Inc.) that attach to a vacuum pump. 2. It is advisable to run a...