Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a collection of symptoms in women prior to the onset of menstruation such as moodiness/depression, tiredness, irritability and bloating. Manganese has been suggested for treatment of this condition based on a 169-day metabolic study in which women had increased mood and pain symptoms with a lower (1.0 mg) versus higher (5.6 mg) Mn intake.72 A possible link with PMS was indicated since the change in mood was found only in their premenstrual phase. However, a subsequent study 10 years later by the same researchers found that dietary manganese only minimally influenced psychological measures in women on an 8-week crossover design study of 0.8 or 20 mg Mn/day.73 Intake of manganese was not related to measures of hostility, anger or aggression, but low manganese was associated with higher self-confidence. Thus, the efficacy of manganese for symptoms of PMS is unclear.
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