Prevalence in the Environment

Manganese is present in the environment as the 12th most prevalent element on earth. The most common of the 11 oxidation states is +2, although it can range from —3 to +7. Natural forms are in sedimentary deposits, iron ores, crude oil and volcanic dust. It is not found as a free metal, but in salts such as oxides, carbonates and silicates. An oxide, pyrolusite (MnO2), is the most widespread form.2

Commercially, manganese is a key component in the metallurgical manufacturing of steel, iron and aluminum and the production of glass, ceramics, dyes, leather and textiles, dry-cell batteries and fertilizer. Newer uses include an anti-fungus compound for foliage (manganese ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate), an enhancing agent for magnetic resonance imaging, and an anti-knock additive

Metallotherapeutic Drugs and Metal-Based Diagnostic Agents: The Use of Metals in Medicine Edited by Gielen and Tiekink © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

[methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT)] in gasoline.3 The United States (US) consumes over 500000 tons of manganese annually, greater than any country in the world.4

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