The beneficial effects of supplemental vitamin E on immune functions of the aged have been shown in animal studies and human clinical trials (13,14). Vitamin E supplementation has been shown to increase delayed-type hypersensitivity response, in vitro T-cell proliferation, and IL-2 production, and to decrease macrophage production of the T cell-suppressive PGE2 (13-15). In addition, the immunostimulatory effect of vitamin E is associated with increased resistance against infectious agents (16). Vitamin E supplementation significantly decreased pulmonary influenza virus titer and increased IL-2 and interferon (IFN)-y production by splenocytes in the old mice infected with influenza virus (16). Detailed reviews on effect of vitamin E on immune response are available (17,18).
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