Mange mites

Primarily, three genera of mange mites infect cattle Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis, Psoroptes ovis and Chorioptes bovis. The female S. scabiei var. bovis mites burrow in the superficial layers of the skin and evidently consume body fluids directly. P. bovis mites do not burrow in the skin but live at the base of hairs and cause irritation by piercing the skin. The mites are believed to feed on the superficial lipid emulsion of lymph, skin cells and skin secretions. C. bovis is a non-invasive...

Metabolism and Tissue Residues

Total residue studies in target species Radiolabelled moxidectin has been used to determine the tissue distribution, biotransformation and elimination of moxidectin in several animal species. Studies have been carried out in cattle dosed subcutaneously or topically, and sheep and horses dosed orally. The metabolic profile in milk taken from cows treated topically with moxidectin has also been studied. These studies were carried out using 14C -moxidectin prepared by chemically modifying its...

Avermectin Leeches

Mahato and Thakur (as reported by Mahato, 1989) observed that nasal leeches (Dinobdella ferox) could be removed from buffalo effectively by first sprinkling water on the nose of the buffalo, which makes the leech protrude from the nose, and subsequently soaking the leech in a 10 ig kg-1 solution of ivermectin. Leeches gradually become flaccid and drop out of the nose within 3 h. Alternatively, the ivermectin can be administered as nasal drops, but subcutaneously or intramuscularly applied...

Future Prospects for Maintaining Parasite Control Despite the Development of Anthelmintic Resistance

Once resistance to use-level anthelmintics has been found, it is difficult to do very much about it. Experience suggests that withdrawal of the use of the anthelmintic to which the worms have become resistant does not lead to reversion to susceptibility in the case of ML or benzimidazole resistance. If another class of anthelmintic remains effective, it can be used to maintain parasite control until resistance eventually also develops to this class. In some parts of South Africa, the management...

Info

The dose rate in this study (11.5 mg tablets, i.e. the upper end of the recommended dose rate of Interceptor ) was higher than that used in the Sankyo study (1.25, 2.5 or 5 mg tablets). An interesting feature is the different elimination half-lives (ii 2) observed in the above two studies. This difference is attributed mainly to the higher dose rates used at Novartis, which resulted in enhanced profiles for a longer period of time (7 days) compared with the Sankyo study (2 days). Hence,...

Target animal safety

For both dogs (Novotny et al., 2000) and cats (Krautmann et al., 2000), drug tolerance and margin of safety were evaluated together in a single study. For each species, selamectin in the commercial formulation was applied topically at the base of the neck. Unit doses of 0,1, 3, 5, or 10x (0, > 6, > 18, > 30 or > 60 mg kg-1, respectively) the recommended dose were administered once every 28 days for seven treatments to 6-week-old puppies or kittens. No adverse effects were observed...

The Control of Nematodes and Egg Reappearance Periods ERPs of the MLs

Considerable debate has taken place in the equine literature over the strengths and weaknesses of IVM or MOX when used in strategic control programmes for horses. Anthelmintic programmes, once based on fixed intervals of anthelmintic administration during the grazing season (reviewed by Bennett, 1983), more recently have been based on strategic treatments delivered to all horses in a herd and targeted for control of both large and small strongyles (reviewed by Ewert et al., 1991 Klei, 1997...

References

Alvarez, J.D., Anziani, O.S., Vottero, D.A. and Peruchena, C. (1997) Effect of the control of gastrointestinal nematodes on weight gain in heifers in the northeast of the Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Revista de Medicina Veterinaria, Buenos Aires 78, 9-13. Anderson, N., Armour, J., Jennings, W.F., Ritchie, J.S.D. and Urquhart, G.M. (1969) The sequential development of naturally occurring ostertagiasis in calves. Research in Veterinary Science 10, 18-28. Anziani, O.S. and Loreficce, C. (1993)...

Red Deer Cervus elaphus Nematodes

Andrews and Lancaster (1988) and Andrews et al. (1993) reported, on the basis of field observations, that a single dose of injectable ivermectin at 200 g kg-1 as recommended for cattle, sheep and horses appeared to be insufficient to control nematode infections in red deer, as is the case of goats treated at the sheep dose (reviewed by Conder and Campbell, 1995). Based on egg larval count (Andrews et al., 1993) or egg larval worm count (Mackintosh et al., 1993) data, 400 g kg-1 of ivermectin...

Oh

Chemical structure of doramectin. doramectin is aver-mectin Aia, its molecular formula is C50H74O14, and its molecular weight is 899.14. The commercial name globally is Dectomax . Dectomax injectable is a 1 solution of doramectin in a non-aqueous vehicle of sesame oil and ethyl oleate. Dectomax pour-on is a 0.5 solution of doramectin in a vehicle of cetearyl octanoate and isopropanol. Injectable formulations (1 solutions) of doramectin are licensed for use in cattle, swine, and...

Nr

100 (Campbell et al., 1989) 100 (Monahan et al., 1995c) 100 (Campbell et al., 1989) 100 (Coles et al., 1998) 100 (Campbell et al., 1989) 100 (Costa et al., 1998) 100 (Campbell et al., 1989) 20-99 (see Discussion) aEfficacy is reported in percentage reduction in selected controlled studies. In general, the highest percentage reduction reported is cited. In the case of ivermectin, many of the original papers are cited in the review by Campbell et al. (1989). individual species of cyathostomes are...

Fallow Deer Dama dama Nematodes

Ivermectin administered orally at 200 g kg-1 to fallow deer was ineffective against mixed nematode infections based on faecal egg counts 13 days following treatment (Mylrea et al., 1991). A second treatment of ivermectin (1 ml per deer) given subcutaneously 13 days after the original treatment resulted in egg counts of zero at 40 and 47 days after the second treatment in at least two deer however, at necropsy at the latter time, S. asymmetrica was present in both and O. ostertagi was found in...

Efficacy Cydectin Against Ixodes

Alva-Valdes, R., Wallace, D.H., Holste, J.E., Egerton, J.R., Cox, J.L., Wooden, J.W. and Barrick, R.A. (1986) Efficacy of ivermectin in a topical formulation against induced gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematode infections, and naturally acquired grubs and lice in cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research 47, 2389-2392. Alvineri, M., Sutra, J.F., Galtier, P. and Toutain, P.L. (1994) Microdose d'ivermectine chez la vache laiti re concentrations plasmatiques et r sidus dans le lait. Revue...

Introduction

The avermectins and related milbemycins here referred to as the macrocyclic lactones MLs are derived from Streptomyces microorganisms. They are a group of very hydrophobic compounds, which have broad-spectrum antinematodal Campbell and Benz, 1984 and antiarthropodal properties. The group includes abamectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, and selamectin, derived from Streptomyces avermitilis milbemycin D, derived from S. hygroscopicus and moxidectin, derived from S. cyanogriseus....

Snakes

Ivermectin is used frequently as a nematocide in snakes at a dose of 200 ig kg-1 administered either orally or by injection. This dose is considered to be safe in most species of snakes, and corn snakes Elapha guttata have tolerated doses of 1000 g kg-1 without apparent adverse effects Teare and Bush, 1983 . However, there are anecdotal reports of ivermectin toxicity in some Australian snakes Jacobson, 1993 . Ivermectin also has been used successfully as an acaricide in many species of snakes....

Heartworm Clinical Prophylaxis in Dogs and Cats

All MLs are completely efficacious against D. immitis larvae, which allows them to be administered every 30 days. For instance, the oral chewable formulation of ivermectin has been found to be 100 effective in preventing development of D. immitis larvae in dogs and cats when administered 30 or 45 days after challenge with infective larvae McTier et al., 1992c Paul et al., 1992a . This characteristic provides a safeguard in the case of omission or delay of a monthly treatment, or when the...

Pharmacokinetics residues and safety

Pharmacokinetic evaluation of subcutaneously administered 200 g kg-1 ivermectin or moxidectin levels following treatment in plasma and milk of lactating camels Oukessou et al., 1999 and for ivermectin in plasma of non-lactating camels Oukessou et al., 1996 yielded area under the curve AUC , Cmax and Tmax values that generally suggested dramatically reduced bioavailability of the two drugs in camels relative to published literature on cattle, but more comparable bioavailability relative to...

Chemoprophylactic Treatment of Feline Heartworm Disease and its Effect on Internal Parasites

Heartworm preventive treatment in cats follows the same regimen established for dogs, that is, monthly dosing should begin within 1 month from the start of the transmission season and the last dose should be given within 1 month from the end of the risk period. Ivermectin is marketed in the USA for use as a prophylactic agent in cats given monthly at the dose of 24 g kg-1 McTier et al, 1992c Paul et al, 1992b . This oral dosage is also highly effective for treatment and control of A. tubaeforme...