Basic Chemistry

Moxidectin is a potent broad-spectrum endectocide (endo- and ectoparasiticide) that is a semisynthetic methoxime derivative of LL F-29249a (F-alpha) (Fig. 1.4.1). F-alpha (nemadectin) is a fermentation product of Streptomyces cyaneogriseus subsp. noncyanogenus. This organism was isolated in 1983 from a sample of red sand from Victoria, Australia.

Moxidectin is a 16-member, second-generation pentacyclic lactone of the milbemycin class of compounds. It is approved globally for use in companion and food-producing animals. It is similar in structure to ivermectin, a member of the avermectins, a class of compounds previously developed with similar uses. Moxidectin and ivermectin differ only in the presence of a disaccharide at C-13 found in ivermectin but not moxidectin, a substituted olefinic side chain at C-25 in moxidectin and the characteristic methoxime moiety at C-23, which is unique to moxidectin.

A brief summary of moxidectin structure and properties is given below:

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Chemical name:

(2aE,4E,5'R,6R,6'S,8E,11R,13S,15S,17aR,20R, 20aR,20bS)-6'-[(E)-1,2-dimethyl-1-butenyl]-5',

CAS Registry number: Physical form: Structural formula:

6,6',7,10,11,14,15,17a,20,20a,20b-dodecahydro-

20,20b-dihydroxy-5'6,8,19-tetra-methylspiro

benzodioxacyclooctadecin-13,2'-[2H]pyrano]-

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