D

the two-state model is assumed, the concentration of denaturant required to achieve equal concentrations of N and D will give some indication of the process. If the fraction of denatured protein, fd, is calculated under given conditions (temperature, concentration of additive, etc.) we can write fd =

where KND is the equilibrium constant for denaturation (KND = [D]/[N]), related to the free energy of denaturation AGND by knd = expi

The equation shows the unfolding of a native protein to form an intermediate, In, which then unfolds to form other intermediates. If

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