O

Particle

Destabilised particle

Destabilised particle

Destabilised particles

Reaction 2

Floc formation Flocculation

Destabilised particles

Floc particles

Floc particles

Destabilised particle

Reaction 3

Secondary adsorption of polymer

No contact with vacant sites on another particle

Destabilised particle

Restabilised particle

Reaction 4

Initial adsorption at excess polymer dosage o—■

Particle

Excess polymers

Excess polymers

Reaction 4

Initial adsorption at excess polymer dosage o—■

Particle

Stable particle (no vacant sites)

Stable particle (no vacant sites)

Floc particle

Reaction 5

Rupture of floc

Floc particle

Intense or prolonged agitation

0 0

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