Scheme 3.4

O refers to the uncharged phenolic group. Dissociation of the amino proton only produces an uncharged form MOH, represented by OO, while dissociation of the phenolic proton gives a zwitterion +HMO-, represented by '+-'. The completely dissociated form MO0 is represented as O-. The entire dissociation scheme is given in Scheme 3.4.

The constants K1, K2, K12 and K21 are termed microdissociation constants and are defined by

The micro- and macrodissociation constants are related by the following expressions:

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