P50

packaging materials polymers 190-1

see also containers; glass; plastics palmitic acid 187 pan coating 317 paracetamol bioavailability 387 polymorphism 14-15, 17 transacetylation with aspirin 125 parallel reactions 108-9 parenteral fluids, pH 153, 154

partial molar quantities 67 particle size and deposition in alveoli 380,

380-1 and solubility 24 biopharmaceutical importance 23-6

control in compendia 25 distribution in aerosols 378, 475-7 effect on drug release 470 measurement in aerosols 475-7 particles diameter 378 gravitational settling 378 growth 254 sedimentation 378-9 uptake in GI tract 23, 341, 343 partition coefficients 164 and bacterial growth inhibition

170, 172 and biological activity 166-71 and drug release from emulsions 249, 251

and drug distribution into human milk 174 and inclusion complex formation 412

and neurotoxicity 172 and penetration of specialised sites 425

and preservative availability 249-50

and protein and peptide transport 451

and solubilisation 224 and sorption 171-3 apparent 166, 169, 341 of anaesthetics 48, 53, 72 pH dependence 169-70 partitioning 164-6 pectin 297-8 pectinic acid 416

penicillamine, copper sequestering 410

penicillin G 398 micellar solutions 123 pH effect on solubility 151 penicillins protein binding effects 423-4 toxicity 171, 172 penis, drug administration 389, 390 pentanol isomer solubility 142, 143 pentobarbital, drug form 24, 26 peptides 431-3, 451-2 adsorption 416-17, 441 aggregation 441, 442-3 delivery routes 454, 455 denaturation 441-2 diffusion coefficients 452 hydrophobicity 433, 436, 438 physical instability 441-3 precipitation 441

solubility 437-40 stability 440-51 structure 433, 434-5, 436, 437 permeability and pH-partition hypothesis 335-7 coefficients 372 cornea 370 polymers 303-6 pessaries, vaginal 376 P-glycoproteins 334 pH

adjustment with buffers 89 adsorption effects 198-9 and absorption of drugs 335-7 body fluids and sites 76, 337 buffer solutions 87-8 drug interactions 395-401 drug ionisation 77-83 drug salts 87 drug solubility 150-5 drug solutions 85-7 drug stability 113-18 eye drops 367-8 gastric 345, 346 gut contents 341 insulin 354, 437 membrane surface 337 precipitation of drugs from solution 153 proteins solubility 437 stability 444, 445-6 stomach 76, 396-7 urinary 76, 399-400 vaginal 76, 375 in vitro effects 395 in vivo effects 395-401 pH-partition hypothesis 335-7, 344 eye application of drugs 367-8 quantitative application 337-41 Pharmaceutical Codex 56 phase diagrams coacervation regions 316 cromoglicate complex 403 y-crystallin 439 nonionic surfactants 211 solubilised systems 221, 222 phase separation 403, 438, 439 phase transitions 41 entropy of substance 59 proteins 438 phenacetin, eutectic temperature 31 phenobarbital 398 adsorption 198 atropine mixture 404 bioavailability 23, 24 solubility in mixed solvents 158 phenolic compounds, solubilised with soap 225 phenothiazine 24 adsorption 196

oxidation susceptibility 96, 97

phenothiazine (continued) photodegradation 100-1 solubility 156 surface activity 185 phenoxymethylpenicillin 405 phentolamine hydrochloride, degradation 121 phenylbutazone 413 phenyltoloxamine 309 pholcodine 309 pholtex 309

phosphate solubility curve for total parenteral nutrition 395 phospholipids monolayers 191-3 structures 331 vesicles 215 photochemical decomposition 99-102, 118 and excipients 126 solid drug stability 127 stabilisation against 101-2 photochemical reactions, primary 100

excipients 126 photolabile drugs, storage 122 photosensitisers 100 photostability testing of solid state drugs 133 phthalates 173 pilocarpine derivatives 371 epimerisation 108, 109 eye absorption 367-9 formulation 369, 370 reservoir systems 373-4 pinocytosis 23

p^a amino acids 439 defined 77

drugs 78-9, 80, 82, 83-5 proteins 85, see also dissociation constant Plantago albicans seed gum 286 plasma expanders 298 plasticisers 312 plastics 274 additives 201 drug affinity 306, 307 drug interactions 417-19 platelets 269 Pluronic grid 220 poisons, adsorption 199-200 polacrilin potassium 310 poloxamers 218-20

tropicamide solubilisation 223, 224 polyacrylamide 277, 259 poly(acrylic acid), anionic derivatives

302 polyamide formation by interfacial reactions 316

local anaesthetic sorption 201 microcapsules 319 polyamino acids 432 polycarbophil 302 polycations 266

polydimethylsiloxanes 271, 333 polydispersity 276, 278 polyether-phenol complex 361 polyethylene201, 277 polyethylene glycol 66, 125, 126,

440, 444 poly(HEMA) 285 polyions 405

poly(lactide-glycolide) 453, 455 polymerisation 102

interfacial 316 polymer-polymer phase behaviour 280

polymers 189, 274-81 adhesion 302 adsorption 291-3 biodegradable 453, 455 blends 278, 280 characteristics 303 complexes 286-8 crosslinked systems 284 crystallinity 303 crystals 280 definitions 274 diffusion in 304-5 drug delivery systems 311-26 eroding systems 320, 321, 322 film coatings 190-1, 311-12, 314 flocculating agents 259, 260 gel layers 281 gels 280, 284-6 heterogels 285-6 high molecular weight 474 hydrophilic 290-1 insoluble 281 ion binding 288 matrices 312-13, 314 mixtures 278, 280 monolayers 189 morphologies 280, 281 nanoparticles 319 osmotic pumps 322-6, 327 packaging materials 190-1 permeability 303-4, 305

to gases 305-6 permeation of drug molecules 304 rate of solution 281 solubility 281 protein 440 solutions 282-93 hydration effects 282-3 pharmacopoeial specifications

283-4 shape 283 viscosity 282-4 solvents 283 interactions 288-9

structural formulae 277-8 syneresis 286

viscosity 281, 282-4, 293, 294

bulk 282 water-insoluble 303-11 water-soluble 281, 281-2, 293-303 bioadhesivity 302 gelling 284-6 wound dressings 302-3 polymethylsiloxane 310 polyoxyethylene glycols 96, 300-2,

385, 388 polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactants 222-3 benzoic acid solubilisation 225, 226 polyprotic drug ionisation 83 polysaccharides calcium-binding 288 steric forces 267 polysorbates 217 HLB numbers 218, 239, 240 solubilising capacity 222-3, 226 polyunsaturated fatty acids, oxidation susceptibility 96 poly(vinyl alcohol) 277, 370 poly(vinyl chloride) 277 drug interactions 417-19 infusion containers 291 solvents 289 sorption 173 polyvinylpyrrolidone 277, 287, 300,

301, 370 potential energy 58 povidone 126 powders, wetting 26-8 precipitation 12, 399-400, 403 insulin 455-6 nonvisible 404 peptides 441

pH for drugs from solution 153 polyionic solutions 405 proteins 441, 443 prednisolone absorption rate 21-2 reservoir systems in eye 371, 373 preservatives activity loss 416

availability in emulsified systems

249-50 plastics interactions 419 sorption 171-2, 173 pressure, gas solubility 46-7, 48, 52 pressure units 36 procainamide 4, 5 procaine penicillin formulation 352 prodrugs, ophthalmic 370-1 product testing, stability 135-6 Progestasert device 320-1 progesterone, permeability constant 358

promazine 415 promethazine 404

propellants, aerosol 37-40, 382 propofol, lipid o/w emulsion 249 propoxyphene hydrochloride adsorption 200 propyl parabens 419 propylene glycol, simple bases 360-1 propylene glycol alginate 297 prostaglandin Ej (PGEj) lipid emulsion formulations 252-3 protamine insulin 353 protamine-zinc insulin 353 proteins 431-3 accelerated stability testing 450-1 adsorption 416-17, 441, 443

prevention 443 aggregation 441, 442-3 association 442-3 beta-elimination 445, 450 binding 419-25 lipophilicity 420, 422-4 sites 420-1

thermodynamics 421-2 chemical instability 445 cosolvents 443-4 deamidation 445-7 degradation characterisation 444-5 delivery of drug 451-5 delivery routes 454, 455 denaturation 441-2 prevention 443-4 diffusion coefficients 452 disulfide formation 445, 450 exposure to air 443 folding 433, 434-5, 436

pathways 442 formulation of drug 443-5, 451-5 hydrophobicity 433, 436, 438 lyophilised 452, 454 membrane transport 452 microspheres 319-20 molecule steric forces 267 organic solvents 440 oxidation 445, 447-8, 449 phase transitions 438 physical instability 441-3 pKa values 85 precipitation 441, 443 proteolysis 445, 450 racemisation 445, 450 self-association 442 solubility 437-40 stability 440-51 structure 433, 434-5, 436, 437 translational movements 452 transport 451-2

water adsorption isotherms 452-3, 455

protein-water solutions 438 proteoglycans, hyaluronic acid interaction 287 proteolysis 445, 450 Proteus mirabilis 66

psyllium seed gum 291 pulmonary epithelium 376 pyloris 343

quaternary amines, ion pairing 341

racemisation 98, 445, 450 ranitidine 397 Raoult's law 37-40 Henry's law relationship 47 vapour pressure lowering 43, 44, 45 rate constants 103 acid-base catalysis 114-18 complex reactions 107-10 dissolution 22 factors affecting 113-23 first-order reactions 104-5 second-order reactions 106 solid dosage forms 111-13 zero-order reactions 104 rate-limiting membranes 320-1 reactions, complex 107-10 reactions, order of 103 determination 106-7 recombinant human albumin 452, 454

recrystallisation 234 rectal drug absorption 385-9 rectum 385-6 rehydration solutions 72-3 relative humidity, storage testing 135 reservoir systems 371, 373-4 resins, ion-exchange 307-10 respiratory system 376 reversible processes 59 reversible reactions 107-8 rheology blood 267

drug characteristics 471 emulsions 253-4 products 471 suspensions 260-1 riboflavin decomposition 131 rifampicin 416, 417 rotating basket method 465, 467 rotating bottle apparatus 470-1 rotating paddle method 465 Rotahaler 381 Royco sizer 378 rubbers 274

salicylic acid, absorption 336-8 salmon calcitonin 456-7, 458 salophen, eutectic temperature 31 salting in 150 salting out 150, 439 salts, solubility effects 150, 438-40 salts of drugs 86-7 hydrotropic 150 solubility 161-2 Schulze-Hardy rule 234 scopolamine 364

second-order reactions 103, 106 sedimentation 231, 254 aerosol particles 378-9 zone in suspensions 255 self-association, proteins 442 self-bodied emulsions 248 self-regulating delivery system, insulin 354-5 semi-permeable membrane 69 semisolid dosage forms 123 Septrin infusion 160 Setschenow equation 150 shear stress, suspensions 261 shelf-life calculation 129 prediction 127-36 silica sol, coagulated 262 silicone coformulation with adhesives

310-11 elastomer matrices 310 permeability 306, 307 pressure-sensitive adhesives 311 viscosity 310 silicone fluids, antifoam action 270, 271

silicone oligomers 310-11 silicone polymers 310-11 silver chloride, solubility 149 simvastatin, oxidation susceptibility

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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