Safety and Efficacy of Nano Artificial RBCs Amount and fate of PLA membrane

By assuming that all the polymer used in the solvent evaporation method is incorporated into the nano artificial red blood cell membrane, the maximal amount of polymer per 500 ml of suspension of nano artificial rbc's is shown in Fig. 5.11. The total amount of membrane material is much less that the total membrane material in LEH. Furthermore, the membrane material of PLA nano artificial rbc's as shown in Fig. 5.11 is made up mostly of biodegradable polymer with a minimal amount of lipid. Since polymer is stronger than lipid and is also porous, much less membrane material is required.

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MEMBRANE MATERIAL

MEMBRANE MATERIAL

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FATE OF POLYLACTIDE MEMBRANE

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HEMOGLOBIN IN SUSPENSION ,

Fig. 5.11. Top: Amount of membrane material in LEH and PLA nano rbc's, 2nd from top: Fate of polylactide membrane in PLA nano rbc's compard to PLA metabolism. 3rd from top: Hb concentration reported. Bottom: Oxygen dissociation curve of PLA nano rbc's compared to SF Hb used in preparation.

Polylactic acid is degraded in the body into lactic acid and then to carbon dioxide (Fig. 5.11). These are all normal body metabolites. However, in hemorrhagic shock much lactic acid can be produced. Therefore, it is important to analyze how much lactic acid is produced in the degradation of PLA nano artificial rbc's. Polylactide is degraded into lactic acid and then water and carbon dioxide (Fig. 5.11). For a 500 ml suspension of PLA nano artificial rbc's, the total lactic acid produced is 83 mEq. This is far less than the normal resting body lactic acid production of 1000-1400 mEq/day) (Fig. 5.11).The maximal body capacity to break down lactic acid is 7080 mEq/day. Thus, 83 mEq is equal to about 1 to 2% of this. Furthermore, the polylactic acid in the PLA nano artificial rbc's is biodegraded over at least two days, and therefore, there is an even smaller amount released per day for each unit of PLA nano artificial rbc.

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