Fatty Acid Biosurfactant

Certain hydrocarbon degrading microbes produce extracellular free fatty acids when grown on alkanes and exhibit good surfactant activity. The fatty acid biosurfactants are saturated fatty acids in the range of C12 to C14 and complex fatty acids containing hydroxyl groups and alkyl branches.44,45 It was shown that Arthobacter strain AK-1946 and P. aeruginosa 44T147 accumulated up to 40-80 (w w) of such lipids when cultivated on hexadecane and olive oil respectively.

Conclusion

Rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been shown to present antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of microorganisms including Gram-negative and Gram-positive species34 and to be cytolytic for human monocyte-derived macrophages, particularly the dirham-nolipid species.35 Its zoorosporicidal activity against phytopatogens has been also described14 and it was suggested that intercalation of rhamnolipids into the plasma membrane would cause its final destruction. Furthermore, a...

Industry

Amedea Perfumo, Ivo Rancich and Ibrahim M. Banat* Abstract Biosurfactants are a group of microbial molecules identified by their unique capabilities to interact with hydrocarbons. Emulsification and de-emulsification, dispersion, foaming, wetting and coating are some of the numerous surface activities that biosurfactants can achieve when applied within systems such as immiscible liquid liquid (e.g., oil water), solid liquid (e.g., rock oil and rock water) and gas liquid. Therefore, the...

Application of Biosurfactant as a Substitute of Synthetic Chemical Surfactant in Commercial Laundry Detergents

Almost all surfactants, an important component used in modern day commercial laundry detergents, are chemically synthesized and exert toxicity to fresh water living organisms. Furthermore, these components often produce undesirable effects. Therefore, growing public disquiet about the environmental hazards and risks associated with chemical surfactants has stimulated the search for ecofriendly, natural substitutes of chemical surfactants in laundry detergents. A recent study from our laboratory...

Info

Suggested a down regulating mechanism for BS production. The transposon was inserted between the hexS gene. hexS is a suppressive gene controlling production, therefore insertion and deactivation resulted in enhanced production of exolipids. Thus, target specific repression of hexS gene product in transcription is elucidated.181 Such abortion of repression can be useful for large scale and economical production of surface active agents. Production of BS and thereby surface migration in S....

Microbial Surfactants in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery MEOR

Approximately 30 of the oil present in a reservoir can be recovered using current enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology.77 The low permeability or the high viscosity of the oil, as well as, high interfacial tensions between the water and oil may also result in high capillary forces retaining the oil in the reservoir rock leading to poor recovery of oil.64,78 Due to failure of primary and secondary recovery techniques to recover the oil from reservoirs, interests have evolved in tertiary...

Accession of Hydrophobic Contaminants in Aqueous Media

The water insoluble nature of petroleum hydrocarbons and most petrochemicals presents a barrier to their microbial degradation, given that microbes generally exist in aqueous phases. In order therefore for microbes to metabolise hydrocarbons their access to these hydrophobic molecules must be facilitated. Two general mechanisms facilitating this access are recognized direct interaction between the microbes and the particulate or liquid droplet hydrophobic substance and interaction with...

Mannosylerythritol Lipids

This glycolipid biosurfactant consists of a sugar called mannosylerythritol and are synthesized by yeast like Candida antarctica24,25 and Candida sp. SY 16.26 The fatty acid component of bio-surfactant was determined to be hexanoic, dodecanoic, tetradecanoic or tetradecenoic acids.26 Mannosylerythritol lipids synthesized by Candida sp. SY 1626 lowered the surface tension of water to 29 dyne cm at critical micelle concentration of 10 mg 1 and the minimum interfacial tension was 0.1 dyne cm...

References

Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa GS3 from molasses. Lett Appl Microbiol 1997 25 91-94. 2. Makkar RS, Comeotra SS. Utilization of molasses for biosurfactant production by two Bacillus strains at thermophilic conditions. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1997 74 887-889. 3. Raza ZA, Khan MS, Khalid ZM. Physicochemical and surface-active properties of biosurfactant produced using molasses by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant. J Environ Sci Health Part A 2007 42 73-80. 4....

Table 2 Environmental remediation potentials and industrial application potential of various marine

Type of Biosurfactant Bioemulsifier Environmental Remediation Industrial Potentials Extracellular polysaccharide-Lipid Extracellular polysaccharide Extracellular polysaccharide Extracellular polysaccharide Extracellular polysaccharide Clycolipopeptide Clycolipopeptide Clycolipopeptide Alcaligenes sp. PHY 9L-86 Pseudomonas putida ML2 Planococcus maitriensis Anita I Antarctobacter sp. Halomonas sp. TC39, Halomonas sp. TC 67 Corynebacterium kutscheri Yarrowia lipolytica Yarrowia lipolytica...

Screening Concepts for the Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Microorganisms

Vanessa Walter,* Christoph Syldatk and Rudolf Hausmann Abstract This chapter gives an overview of current methods for the isolation of biosurfactant producing microbes. The common screening methods for biosurfactants are presented. Sampling and isolation of bacteria are the basis for screening of biosurfactant producing microbes. Hydrocarbon-contaminated sites are the most promising for the isolation of bio-surfactant producing microbes, but many strains have also been isolated from undisturbed...

Lipopeptides

Another major class of biosurfactants are lipopeptides. These molecules have a hydrophilic peptide head group and a hydrophobic lipid tail. Several species of marine microorganisms such as Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Myroides have been reported to produce this type of surfactants. For example, two marine isolates MK90e85 and MK91CC8, identified as Pseudomonas sp. produced antimycobacterial cyclic depsipeptides and viscosin.25 The marine isolate MK90e85 which was obtained from a red alga produced...

Glycolipopeptides and Carbohydrate LipidProtein Complexes

Another important class of biosurfactants and emulsifiers from marine bacteria are the carbohydrate-lipid-protein complexes or glycolipopeptides being produced from bacteria like Corynebacterium sp. and Halomonas sp. as well as yeasts like Yarrowia sp. A strain of Corynebacterium kutscheri isolated from Tuticorin harbor, India utilized substrates like waste motor lubricant oil and peanut oil cake and produced glycolipopeptide type of biosurfactant having a chemical composition of carbohydrates...

Use of Biosurfactants in Pharmaceutical Sectors and Molecular Biology Research

Rhamnolipids produced by P. aeruginosa,67 lipopeptides produced by B. subtilis3 96 and B. licheniformis97 and mannosylerythritol lipids from C antarctica25 have been reported to have antimicrobial activities. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by P. aeruginosa was recently reported to have potential algicidal activity against some harmful algae.98 Surfactin was reported to have properties like hemolysis and inhibiting fibrin clot formation that indicates its potential use in the pharmaceutical...

Molecular Genetics of Biosurfactant Synthesis in Microorganisms

Polysaccharide Synthesis Locus Synthesis

Bhuyan, Karishma R. Pardesi, Shilpa S. Mujumdar, Prashant K. Dhakephalkar, Ashvini M. Shete and Balu A. Chopade Biosurfactant BS bioemulsifier BE produced by varied microorganisms exemplify immense structural functional diversity and consequently signify the involvement of particular molecular machinery in their biosynthesis. The present chapter aims to compile information on molecular genetics of BS BE production in microorganisms. Polymer synthesis in...

Biosurfactant as Biopesticide

Conventional arthropod control strategy involves application of broad-spectrum chemicals and pesticides, which often produce undesirable effects. Further, emergence of pesticide resistant insect populations as well as rising prices of new chemical pesticides have stimulated the search for new eco-friendly vector control tools. Eventually, biocontrol of insect pests and vectors is becoming one of the most promising alternatives to chemical pesticides. Studies have shown that the lipopeptide...

Biological Activity Glycolipids

Glycolipids are the most common group of biosurfactants of which the most effective regarding surface active properties are the trehalose lipids obtained from Mycobacterium and related bacteria, the rhamnolipids obtained from Pseudomonas sp. and the sophorolipids obtained from yeasts. Otto and coworkers12 described the production of sophorose lipids using deproteinized whey concentrate as substrate by a two-stage process. Several antimicrobial, immunological and neurological properties have...

Glycolipids

Glycolipid biosurfactants are the types in which the molecules consist of a hydrophilic glyco part consisting of few sugar molecules and a hydrophobic lipid portion. Various microbial genera like Halomonas, Pantoea, Nocardioides, Rhodococcus to name a few are the ones which produce glycolipids type of biosurfactants. The n-hexadecane degrading biosurfactant producer Halomonas sp. ANT-3b being isolated from Ross sea, Antarctica, showed best growth and emul-sifier production at low temperature of...

I3

Structure of phosphatidylethanolamine, a microbial surfactant produced by Acinetobactor sp. Figure 12. Structure of emulsan, produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Figure 12. Structure of emulsan, produced by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. phospholipids and lipopolysaccharide.35 Surfactant activity in most hydrocarbon-degrading and pathogenic bacteria is attributed to the cell surface components. Biosurfactants are of increasing interest for commercial use because of the continually...