Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogs (Figure 61-8); they contain 2 phosphonate groups attached to a germinal (central) carbon that replaces the oxygen in pyrophosphate. They have a strong affinity for bone, especially areas undergoing remodeling. They are used extensively in conditions characterized by osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, including osteoporosis, steroid-induced osteoporosis, Paget's disease, tumor-associated osteolysis, breast and prostate cancer, and hypercalcemia.

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"0-P-o— p—O" "O —p —c—p—O" -O —p —c—p —O"


oh oh oh r2 oh oh h oh etidronate clodronate tiludronate o ch30 o ci o ci

"o —p —c—p—o" "o —p—c—p—o"


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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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