Centralautonomic Connections

Dorn Spinal Therapy

Spine Healing Therapy

Get Instant Access

There probably are no purely autonomic or somatic centers of integration; extensive overlap occurs; somatic responses always are accompanied by visceral responses, and vice versa. Auto-nomic reflexes can be elicited at the level of the spinal cord and are manifested by sweating, blood pressure alterations, vasomotor responses to temperature changes, and reflex emptying of the urinary bladder, rectum, and seminal vesicles. The hypothalamus and the STN are principal loci of integration of ANS functions, including regulation of body temperature, water balance, carbohydrate and fat metabolism, blood pressure, emotions, sleep, respiration, and reproduction. Signals are received through ascending spinobulbar pathways, the limbic system, neostriatum, cortex, and to a lesser extent other higher brain centers.

The CNS can produce a wide range of patterned autonomic and somatic responses. Highly integrated patterns of response generally are organized at the hypothalamic level and involve autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral components. More limited patterned responses are organized at other levels of basal forebrain, brainstem, and spinal cord.

DIVISIONS OF THE PERIPHERAL AUTONOMIC SYSTEM: EFFERENT NERVES

On the efferent side, the ANS consists of two large divisions: (1) the sympathetic or thoracolumbar, and, (2) the parasympathetic or craniosacral (see Figure 6-1).

The neurotransmitter of all preganglionic autonomic fibers, all postganglionic parasympathetic fibers, and a few postganglionic sympathetic fibers is acetylcholine (ACh). Adrenergic fibers comprise the majority of the postganglionic sympathetic fibers; here, the transmitter is norepinephrine (NE, noradrenaline). The terms cholinergic and adrenergic are used to describe neurons that release ACh or NE, respectively.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment