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FIGURE 33-1 Pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure and major sites of drug action. Heart failure is accompanied by compensatory neurohormonal responses including activation of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin systems. Although these responses initially help to maintain cardiovascular function by increasing ventricular preload and systemic vascular tone, with time they contribute to the progression of myocardial failure. Increased ventricular afterload, due to systemic vasoconstriction and chamber dilation, causes a depression in systolic function. In addition, increased afterload and the direct effects of angiotensin and NE on the ventricular myocardium cause pathological remodeling characterized by progressive chamber dilation and loss of contractile function. The figure illustrates several mechanisms that appear to play important roles in the pathophysiology of heart failure, and the sites of action of pharmacological therapies for heart failure.

FIGURE 33-1 Pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure and major sites of drug action. Heart failure is accompanied by compensatory neurohormonal responses including activation of the sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin systems. Although these responses initially help to maintain cardiovascular function by increasing ventricular preload and systemic vascular tone, with time they contribute to the progression of myocardial failure. Increased ventricular afterload, due to systemic vasoconstriction and chamber dilation, causes a depression in systolic function. In addition, increased afterload and the direct effects of angiotensin and NE on the ventricular myocardium cause pathological remodeling characterized by progressive chamber dilation and loss of contractile function. The figure illustrates several mechanisms that appear to play important roles in the pathophysiology of heart failure, and the sites of action of pharmacological therapies for heart failure.

Vasodilator Drugs Used to Treat Heart Failure
Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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