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communicating nociceptive stimuli from the periphery to the CNS. Somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and cholecystokinin may play a role in the transmission of afferent impulses from autonomic structures. ATP appears to be a neurotransmitter in certain sensory neurons, including those that innervate the urinary bladder. Enkephalins, present in interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord (within an area termed the substantia gelatinosa), have antinociceptive effects that appear to arise from presynaptic and postsynaptic actions to inhibit the release of substance P and diminish the activity of cells that project from the spinal cord to higher centers in the CNS. The excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate also play major roles in transmission of sensory responses to the spinal cord.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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