Diuretics retain a central role in the management of the "congestive" symptoms in patients with heart failure. The pharmacological properties of these agents are presented in detail in Chapter 28. Their importance in heart failure management reflects the central role of the kidney in the hemo-dynamic, hormonal, and autonomic responses to myocardial failure. The net effect of these responses is the retention of Na+ and water and expansion of the extracellular fluid volume, allowing the heart to operate at higher end-diastolic volumes, and thereby to maintain LV stroke volume. However, this increase in end-diastolic volume results in higher end-diastolic filling pressures,

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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