Exocrine Glands

Choline esters and muscarinic alkaloids stimulate secretion of glands that receive parasympa-thetic or sympathetic cholinergic innervation, including the lacrimal, salivary, digestive, tracheo-bronchial, and sweat glands. Pilocarpine in particular causes marked diaphoresis (2-3 L of sweat may be secreted) and markedly increases salivation. Muscarine and arecoline also are potent diaphoretic agents. Accompanying side effects may include hiccough, salivation, nausea, vomiting, weakness, and occasionally collapse. These alkaloids also stimulate the lacrimal, gastric, pancreatic, and intestinal glands, and the mucous cells of the respiratory tract.

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