Info

sodium nitroprusside for, 570 sodium restrictions in, 563 spironolactone for, 564 stages, 576, 576/ therapeutic approach, 561, 563t,

576-577, 576/ vasopeptidase inhibitors for, 571 Heart valves, prosthetic, warfarin for embolism prevention, 959

Heavy metals chelating agents for, 1126-1130.

See also specific agents poisoning, 1130-1140. See also specific substances HECTORAL (doxercalciferol), 1068 Helicobacter pylori infection combination therapy, 630-631,

631t, 773 metronidazole for, 688 Helium, 260-261

Helminth infections, 695-706. See also specific infections and antihelmintic agents Hematopoiesis, 927

ineffective, 944 Hematopoietic agents, 927-948 Hematopoietic growth factors,

927-933, 928f Hematoporphyrin derivative, 1082 Hemicelluloses, 638, 640t Hemodialysis, for poisoning, 445,

1124-1125 Hemolytic anemia methyldopa and, 550 sulfonamides and, 720 Hemophilia, desmopressin for, 509 Hemorrhagic fever, ribavirin for, 836 Hemosiderin, 934 Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, 1 Heparan sulfate, 952 Heparin absorption, 953

administration and monitoring, 953 adverse effects, 954-955 chemistry, 951, 952f low-molecular-weight administration and monitoring, 953 mechanisms of action, 952 pharmacokinetics, 953 preparations, 953-954 sources, 952 therapeutic uses, 953 mechanisms of action, 952 pharmacokinetics, 953 pharmacological effects, 952-953 sources, 952

synthetic derivatives, 954 therapeutic uses, 532, 953 Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia,

954-955 Hepatic clearance definition, 8 impaired, 74 Hepatic encephalopathy, lactulose for, 640

Hepatitis halothane-induced, 234 isoniazid and, 786 rifampin and, 787 Hepatitis B

adefovir dipivoxil for, 830 interferons for, 832-833, 921 lamivudine for, 834-835 Hepatitis B immune globulin, 922,

922t Hepatitis C

interferons for, 833, 921 ribavirin for, 836, 921 HEPSERA (adefovir dipivoxil), 815t HERCEPTIN (trastuzumab), 901 Hereditary angioedema, bradykinin in, 414

HERG (human ether-a-go-go related gene), 578

Heroin metabolism, 358, 393 mood-altering and rewarding effects, 393-394, 394/ mortality in abusers, 394 withdrawal, 394-395, 395/ Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, 812 acyclovir for, 817-818 cidofovir for, 820 docosanol for, 820 famciclovir for, 821 foscarnet for, 822 idoxuridine for, 825 ophthalmic, 1101, 1101/ penciclovir for, 821 trifluridine for, 825 valacyclovir for, 817 Herpes zoster ophthalmicus, 1101, 1101/. See also Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infections HERPLEX (idoxuridine), 815/ HEXALIN (altretamine), 863 Hexamethonium (C6), 146/ HGMD (Human Gene Mutation

Database), 62/ HGVbase (Human Genome Variation

Database), 62/ Hidradenitis suppurativa, isotretinoin for, 1079 High-ceiling diuretics. See Loop diuretics High-density lipoprotein (HDL) characteristics, 604/, 607 estrogens and, 998 ethanol consumption and, 375 goals by risk category, 610/ levels, classification of, 609/ low, treatment goals in, 611 Highly active retroviral therapy (HAART). See Antiretroviral therapy, for HIV infection Hirudin, in angina, 542 Histamine cardiovascular effects, 404-405 chemistry, 401, 402/, 625/ distribution, 401 metabolism, 401, 402/ as neurotransmitter, 211/, 217, 404

release and functions, 401-402 abnormal, 403

in allergic responses, 402-403 in gastric acid secretion, 403 by neuromuscular blocking agents, 139-140 smooth muscle effects, 405 synthesis and storage, 401 triple response of Lewis, 405 vasopressin secretion and, 501 Histamine N-methyltransferase

(HNMT), 54 Histamine receptor(s)

cardiovascular effects, 404 characteristics, 402/ Hj, 402/, 404—-05 H2, 402/, 404—-05 H3, 402/, 404—-05, 411 H4, 402/, 404—05, 411 mechanisms of action, 404 receptor-effector coupling, 404 smooth muscle effects, 405 vasodilation and, 404

Histamine receptor antagonist(s) H1

absorption, fate, and excretion, 407

adverse effects, 407 for allergic diseases, 410—11 anticholinergic effects, 406 capillary permeability and, 406 chemistry, 405/, 406/ CNS effects, 406 for common cold, 411 CYPs and, 407 dermatologic uses, 1082 dosages, 408-409/ duration of action, 408-409/ for flare and itch, 406 "hangover" effects, 406 interactions, 407 for motion sickness, 411 for nausea/vomiting, 646, 647/, 649

nonsedating, 406 ophthalmic uses, 1108 pharmacological properties, 406 in pregnancy, 407 preparations, 408-409/ sedative effects, 406, 407 side effects, 407 smooth muscle effects, 406 structure-activity relationship,

405, 405/ therapeutic uses, 410—11 for vertigo, 411

adverse effects, 624 chemistry, 624, 625/ dermatologic uses, 1082 for gastroesophageal reflux disease, 624-625, 629, 629/, 630/ for H. pylori infection, 631/ interactions, 624 with delavirdine, 847 with itraconazole, 803/ mechanisms of action, 622/, 624 for peptic ulcer disease, 631/ pharmacokinetics, 624 pharmacological properties, 624 in pregnancy, 629 receptor specificity, 647/ therapeutic uses, 625 tolerance to, 625 H3, 411 H4, 411

HlSTERONE(testosterone), 1017/ Histiocytosis X, vinblastine for, 882 HISTOACRYL (cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive), 1108-1109 His/oplasma capsulatum. See

Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis amphotericin B for, 799 itraconazole for, 802, 804 Histrelin, 975/ HIV infection. See Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection HIV protease inhibitors. See Protease inhibitors HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. See

Statins HMS (medrysone), 1107 Hodgkin's disease bleomycin for, 891 dacarbazine for, 866

glucocorticoids for, 906 mechlorethamine for, 861 procarbazine for, 866 vinblastine for, 882 vincristine for, 882 Homatropine, 124, 1104/, 1106 Hookworm infections, 695-696 albendazole for, 695-696, 699 mebendazole for, 695, 699 pyrantel for, 706 Hordeolum, 1098 Horizontal gene transfer, in drug resistance, 709 Hormonal contraceptives intrauterine, 1008 intravaginal, 1008 male, 1020

oral. See Oral contraceptives patch, 1008 Hormone antagonists, 856/, 905-908 antiandrogens, 906 antiestrogens, 907-908 aromatase inhibitors, 908 therapeutic uses, 856/ Hormone replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms, 1000-1001 regimens, 1001 HORTAZ (ceftazidime), 745/ HSV. See Herpes simplex virus

(HSV) infections 5-HT (serotonin). See 5-

Hydroxytryptamine HUMALOG (insulin lispro), 1044 HUMALOG MIX (lispro protamine/lispro), 1048 Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for cryptorchidism, 977 in pregnancy, 996 recombinant, 977 therapeutic uses, 976-977 Human ether-a-go-go related gene

(HERG), 578 Human Gene Mutation Database

(HGMD), 62/ Human Genome Variation Database

(HGVbase), 62/ Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection anemia in, erythropoietin therapy for, 930 antiretroviral therapy for alternative regimens, 839/ combinations to avoid, 839-840/ entry inhibitors, 852 expected outcome, 840 failed regimens, 840 initiation, 838 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. See also specific agents absorption, distribution, and excretion, 847 adverse effects, 847 chemistry, 846f interactions, 787, 850/ mechanisms of action, 847 pharmacokinetics, 847/ resistance to, 847 nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 840-846. See also specific agen/s absorption, distribution, and excretion, 843

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (Cont.): adverse effects, 843-844 chemistry, 840-841, 841/ mechanisms of action, 843, 843/

pharmacokinetics, 842t resistance to, 843 patient characteristics, 839t preferred regimens, 839t principles, 838-840, 852 protease inhibitors. See also speci/ic agents absorption, distribution, and excretion, 848 adverse effects, 848 chemistry, 849/ interactions, 614, 769, 787,

848, 850t, 851t mechanisms of action, 848,

849/ resistance to, 848 resistance to, 838-840 CMV prophylaxis in, 824 CMV treatment in. See

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections incidence, 837

M. avium infections in, 793. See also Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection pathogenesis, 837-838 testosterone for muscle wasting syndrome in, 1020 tuberculosis prophylaxis in, 793 tuberculosis treatment in, 785t,

791-792 viral life cycle, 837, 838/ viral structure, 837, 838/ Human leukocyte antigen, genetic polymorphisms, 66t, 68 HUMATROPE (somatotropin), 970 HUMIRA (adalimumab), 920 humulin (insulin), 1043 Huntington's disease clinical overview, 336 genetics, 336, 345-346 pathophysiology, 336, 337/ pharmacotherapy, 346-347 HYALUTIN (hydroxyprogesterone caproate), 1006 HYAMTIN (topotecan), 885 HYCODAN (homatropide methylbromide with hydrocodone), 124 Hydralazine absorption, metabolism, and excretion, 556 adverse effects, 556-557 contraindications, 556 for heart failure, 563t, 568 interaction with P adrenergic receptor antagonists, 186 with isosorbide dinitrate, for heart failure, 568 for nitrate tolerance, 568 pharmacological effects, 556 therapeutic uses, 557 HYDREA (hydroxyurea), 893 Hydrochlorothiazide chemistry, 490t for heart failure, 564, 565 for hypertension, 544-546 pharmacokinetics, 490t Hydrocodone, 367t

Hydrocortisone. See Cortisol HYDRODIURIL (hydrochlorothiazide), 490/

Hydrolysis reactions, 47/ Hydrolytic enzymes, 48 Hydromorphone, 367/, 369/ HYDROMOX (quinethazone), 491/ Hydroquinone, 1094 3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A(HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors. See Statins

Hydroxyamphetamine, 150/, 1105/ Hydroxychloroquine, 1085, 1111 1a-Hydroxy-cholecalciferol (1-OHD3), 1068, 1069/ Hydroxyethyl cellulose, 1114 1a-Hydroxylase, 1064/ Hydroxyprogesterone caproate, 856/, 1006

Hydroxypropyl cellulose, 1114 Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, 1114 8-Hydroxyquinolines, 685. See also speci/ic agents 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5-HT)

aggression and, 194 anxiety and, 194 appetite and, 194 behavioral effects, 193-194 in cardiovascular system, 192-193 in central nervous system, 193, 194/

depression and, 194 in enterochromaffin cells, 192,

634/, 635 in gastrointestinal tract, 192, 192/,

634/, 635, 645 as neurotransmitter, 210/, 216-217 physiologic functions, 188-194 in platelets, 192, 193/ sites of action, 192-194 sleep-wake cycle and, 193 synthesis and metabolism, 188,

189/ transporters

5-HTT, genetic polymorphisms, 66/ SERT, 42 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor(s) genetic polymorphisms, 66/ subtypes, 188-192, 190/, 191/, 216 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist(s) absorption, fate, and excretion, 196 adverse effects, 196 for bowel motility disorders,

635-636 contraindications, 196-197 mechanisms of action, 196,

635-636 for migraine, 197-198 pharmacological properties,

194-199, 195/ therapeutic uses, 194-199, 195/ 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist(s) adverse effects, 200 interaction with apomorphine, 343 for irritable bowel syndrome, 645 for nausea/vomiting, 646/,

647-649, 647/, 648/ pharmacological properties, 199 receptor specificity, 647/ therapeutic uses, 199-201

Hydroxyurea dosage, 893

mechanisms of action, 858/ pharmacokinetics, 893 therapeutic uses, 855t, 893 toxicity, 893-894 Hydroxyzine for anxiety, 297 dermatologic uses, 1082 receptor specificity, 647t Hydroxyzine chloride, 408t Hydroxyzine pamoate, 408t HYGROTON (chlorthalidone), 490/ HYLOREL (guanadrel), 552 Hymenolepis nana, 697 Hyoscyamine, 645 HYPER-AB (rabies immune globulin), 922t

Hyperaldosteronism, spironolactone for, 496-497 Hyperbaric helium, 261 Hyperbaric oxygen, 257-258 Hypercalcemia bisphosphonates for, 1068 calcitonin for, 1068 causes, 1066 loop diuretics for, 487 symptoms, 1066 thiazide diuretics and, 546 Hypercholesterolemia, 603. See also

Dyslipidemia Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), imatinib for, 895 Hypergastrinemia, proton pump inhibitors and, 624 Hyperglycemia. See also Diabetes mellitus drug-induced, 1050 loop diuretics and, 487 toxic effects, 1042 HYPERHEP (hepatitis B immune globulin), 922t Hyperkalemia

ACE inhibitors and, 524, 555, 567 angiotensin II receptor blockers and, 527, 555 mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and, 496 sodium channel inhibitors and, 493 succinylcholine-induced, 140 Hyperkeratotic disorders, 1093 Hyperlipidemia, 603. See also

Dyslipidemia Hyperosmolality, vasopressin secretion and, 499-500 Hyperparathyroidism calcitriol analogs for, 1068 cinacalcet for, 1072 hypercalcemia in, 1066 treatment, 1068 Hyperphosphatemia, 1067 Hyperpigmentation, 1094 Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, 206 Hyperprolactinemia, 973-974 Hypersensitivity reactions, 1118 HYPERSTAT IV (diazoxide), 560 Hypertension acebutolol for, 179 ACE inhibitors for, 522, 554-555 a adrenergic receptor agonists for, 551 P adrenergic receptor antagonists for, 176-177, 116/, 176t, 547-548

angiotensin II receptor blockers for,

526, 555-556 atenolol for, 179 Ca2+ channel antagonists for,

553-554 classification, 544, 545/ complications, 544 in diabetes mellitus, 554 diuretics for combination, 494, 496 loop, 487

mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, 496 sodium-channel inhibitor, 494 thiazide, 489, 492 doxazosin for, 173 ethanol consumption and, 375-377 hydralazine for, 557 MAO inhibitors and, 295 methyldopa for, 550 metoprolol for, 179 nitroprusside for, 559 nonpharmacological therapy, 560 ocular, 1103. See also Glaucoma prazosin for, 173 propranolol for, 178 reserpine for, 553 selection of agent, 560 HYPERTET (tetanus immune globulin),

922/ Hyperthyroidism antithyroid drugs for, 990 causes, 986

clinical presentation, 986 radioactive iodine for, 992-993 Hypertonic saline, 1114 Hypertriglyceridemia categories, 609/ fibrates for, 618-619 lifestyle modifications, 611 niacin for, 618 statins for, 612 treatment goals, 611 Hypertropic cardiomyopathy, p adrenergic receptor antagonists for, 187 Hyperuricemia allopurinol for, 459 diuretics and, 487, 546 Hypnosis, 262

Hypnotics. See also Barbiturates; Benzodiazepine(s) benzodiazepine-receptor agonists,

269-270 definition, 262 in the elderly, 276 for insomnia, 276-277 miscellaneous, 274-275 nonprescription, 275 Hypocalcemia calcium for, 1068 causes, 1066 symptoms, 1066 Hypoglycemia drug-induced, 1050 insulin therapy and, 1042,

1048-1049 symptoms, 1049 Hypogonadism, male, testosterone for, 1019-1020 Hypokalemia. loop diuretics and, 487 Hypomagnesemia, loop diuretics and, 487

Hyponatremia, loop diuretics for, 487 Hypoparathyroidism, 1069

Hypophosphatemia, 1067 Hypoprothrombinemia drug-induced, 966 of the newborn, 965 Hypotension

ACE inhibitors and, 524 adrenergic receptor agonists for,

167-168 vasopressin and, 500, 505 Hypothalamic GnRH pulse generator,

994, 996/ Hypothalamiconeurohypophyseal system, 499 Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in ACTH secretion, 1024 gonadotropin release and, 974/ overview, 1026/ Hypothalamus antipsychotics and, 303 opioids and, 354 vasopressin synthesis and, 499 Hypothermia, in general anesthesia, 221-222 Hypothyroidism, 986-987 Hypovolemia, vasopressin and, 500, 505

Hypoxemia, 253 Hypoxia causes, 253

oxygen therapy for, 257 Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), 928 HYTRIN (terazosin), 171/

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