Info

Variable

Liver

Modulator of fibrinolysis

ABBREVIATIONS: ABCA1, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1; apo, apolipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoproteins: IDL, intermediate-density lipoproteins; kDa, kilodaltons; LCAT, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase; LDL, low-density lipoproteins; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; VLDL, very-low-density lipoproteins.

ABBREVIATIONS: ABCA1, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1; apo, apolipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoproteins: IDL, intermediate-density lipoproteins; kDa, kilodaltons; LCAT, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase; LDL, low-density lipoproteins; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; VLDL, very-low-density lipoproteins.

synthesis of fatty acids. ApoB-100, apoE, and several other lipoproteins are synthesized constitu-tively by the liver and incorporated into VLDL (Table 35-2). If triglycerides are unavailable, the newly synthesized apoB-100 is degraded by hepatocytes. Small amounts of apoE and the C apoproteins are incorporated into nascent particles within the liver before secretion, but most of the VLDL apoproteins are acquired from plasma HDL after the VLDL are secreted by the liver.

Without the enzyme microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), hepatic triglycerides cannot be transferred to apoB-100. Patients with dysfunctional MTP fail to make any of the apoB-containing lipoproteins (VLDL, IDL, or LDL). MTP also plays a key role in the synthesis of chylomicrons in the intestine, and mutations of MTP that result in the inability of triglycerides to be transferred to either apoB-100 in the liver or apoB-48 in the intestine prevent VLDL and chy-lomicron production and cause the genetic disorder abetalipoproteinemia.

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