Levulan Kerastick

(5-Aminolevulinic acid), 1082 LEXAPRO (escitalopram), 281/ LH. See Luteinizing hormone LHADI (recombinant luteinizing hormone), 977 LIBRAX (chlordiazepoxide), 123 LIBRIUM (chlordiazepoxide), 268/ Lichen planus cyclosporine for, 1087 PUVA for, 1081 tacrolimus for, 1088 Liddle's syndrome, 493, 494 Lidocaine adverse effects, 246, 599 for cardiac arrhythmias dosage, 593/

electrophysiological actions, 587/ mechanisms of action, 598-599 pharmacokinetics, 593/, 599 chemistry, 242/ clinical uses, 246 CNS effects, 244 interactions, 599 as local anesthetic epidural, 251 infiltration, 249 intravenous regional, 250 nerve blocks, 250 spinal, 251 topical, 248, 249 ophthalmic uses, 114 pharmacokinetics, 599 pharmacological properties, 246 side effects, 244 toxicity, 246, 599 LIDODERM (lidocaine), 246 Ligand-gated ion channels, 206 Limbic system, antipsychotics and,

302-303 Lindane, 1085 Linezolid absorption, distribution, and excretion, 780 adverse effects, 780 antibacterial activity, 780 chemistry, 780/ mechanisms of action, 780 therapeutic uses, 780 LIORESAL (baclofen), 347 Liothyronine sodium (L-T3), 987 Liotrix (levothyroxine/liothyronine), 987

Lipid(s). See Lipoprotein(s) Lipid-lowering therapy. See

Dyslipidemia, treatment LIPITOR (atorvastatin), 615 Lipoatrophy, insulin therapy and, 1049 Lipohypertrophy, insulin therapy and, 1049

Lipoprotein(a), 604/ Lipoprotein(s)

characteristics, 604/ classes, 604/ estrogens and, 998 ethanol consumption and, 375 high-density. See High-density lipoprotein intermediate-density, 604/ levels, classification of, 609/ loop diuretics and, 487 low-density. See Low-density lipoprotein metabolism, 603 very-low-density, 603-606, 604/

Liposomes, 1076 5-Lipoxygenase (ALOX5), 66t Lipoxygenases (LOXs)

in arachidonic acid metabolism,

418, 419/ inhibitors, 468

5-LOX, in leukotriene synthesis, 418, 419/

Lisinopril dosage, 520

for heart failure, 554, 563t for hypertension, 554 pharmacological properties, 520 Lispro. See Insulin lispro Lissamine green, 1111 Listeria monocytogenes ampicillin for, 738 penicillin G for, 736 Lithium absorption, fate, and excretion, 315 for bipolar disorder, 317 CNS effects, 302/, 314-315 distribution, 315 dose, 315

EEG changes and, 316 formulations, 317 interactions, 315, 316-317 ACE inhibitors, 525 with desmopressin, 509 with loop diuretics, 487 with thiazide diuretics, 489 for mania, 317-318 mechanisms of action, 302/ pharmacological properties,

314-315 in pregnancy, 316 renal effects, 316 serum-level monitoring, 315 side effects, 316 therapeutic uses, 317-318 toxicity of/poisoning with, 316 vasopressin and, 501, 505, 507, 509 Liver

ACE inhibitors and, 525 acetaminophen and, 446 antipsychotics and, 311 autonomic regulation, 92t barbiturates and, 273 enflurane and, 236 ethanol consumption and, 378 halothane and, 234 insulin and, 1041t isoflurane and, 235 methyldopa and, 550 poison excretion by, 1124 salicylates and, 441 Liver flukes, 698, 705 LIVIAL (tibolone), 1001 LIVOSTIN (levocabastine), 409t Loading dose, 13-14 Loa loa, 697. See also Loiasis Lobeline, 144/

Local anesthesia/anesthetics, 241-252 adverse effects, 244-245 cardiovascular effects, 245 chemistry, 241, 242/ clinical uses, 248-252 CNS effects, 244

duration of action, vasoconstrictors and, 242 epidural administration, 251-252 field block, 249

frequency and voltage dependence, 241

hypersensitivity to, 245

infiltration, 249 for injection, 247

intrathecal administration, 251-252 of low solubility, 248 mechanisms of action, 241, 243/ metabolism, 245 for mucous membranes and skin,

247-248 nerve block, 249-250 nerve fiber sensitivity to, 241-242, 244/

ophthalmic uses, 248 pH and, 242 regional intravenous administration, 250 smooth muscle and, 245 spinal administration, 250-251 structure-activity relationship, 241 topical use, 248-249 LODINE (etodolac), 448 LODINE XL (etodolac), 448 LODOSYN (carbidopa), 341 Lodoxamide tromethamine, 1108 LOFIBRA (fenofibrate), 619 Loiasis, 697, 701 LOMOTIL (diphenoxylate), 360 Lomustine, 865 LONITEN (minoxidil), 557 Loop diuretics, 482-487

absorption and elimination, 484,

485^86/ adverse effects, 487 chemistry, 485^86/ contraindications, 487 excretory effects, 478/, 484 for heart failure, 563-564, 565 for hypertension, 487 interactions, 487

with aminoglycosides, 756 with thiazide diuretics, 489 mechanisms of action, 482-483, 483/

prostaglandins and, 484 for pulmonary edema, 487 renal hemodynamic effects, 478/, 484

renin release and, 511 resistance to, 565, 565/ therapeutic uses, 487 vascular effects, 484 Loperamide, 360, 643, 659 LOPID (gemfibrozil), 619 Lopinavir for HIV infection, 839/, 850 interactions with itraconazole, 803/ with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 850/

with other protease inhibitors, 851/

LOPRESSOR (metoprolol), 178-179 LOPROX (ciclopirox olamine), 810 LORABID (loracarbef), 743/ Loracarbef, 743/ Loratadine chemistry, 406/ dermatologic uses, 1082 dosage, 409/

interaction with itraconazole, 803/ pharmacological properties, 409/, 410 Lorazepam as anesthetic adjunct, 239 as antiseizure drug, 329-330

chemistry, 263t for chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting, 648t disorders, 268t pharmacokinetics, 329 therapeutic uses, 268t LORCET (hydromorphone), 368t LORSBAN (chlorpyrifos), 128 LORTAB (hydromorphone), 368t Losartan, 526, 555, 563t LOTEMAX (loteprednol), 1107 LOTENSIN (benazepril), 520 Loteprednol, 1107 LOTRIMIN (clotrimazole), 809 LOTRONEX (alosetron), 645 Lovastatin absorption, metabolism, and excretion, 612 adverse effects, 613-614 dosage, 612t, 614 interaction with itraconazole, 803t

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) characteristics, 604t, 606-607 estrogens and, 998 ethanol consumption and, 375 goals by risk category, 608t levels, classification of, 609t statins for lowering, 612, 612t. See also Statins Low-molecular-weight heparin. See Heparin, low-molecular-weight Loxapine, 3071, 309t LOXITANE (loxapine), 309t LOZOL (indapamide), 491t LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide),

198, 398 Lubricants, ophthalmic, 1114 LUBRILAX (sodium picosulfate), 641 LUDIOMIL (maprotiline), 280t Lumefantrine, 672/ LUMIGAN (bimatoprost), 1103 LUMINAL (phenobarbital), 271t Lumiracoxib, 435t

LUNELLE (medroxyprogesterone/estradiol cypionate), 1008 Lung(s). See also Respiratory system abscess, clindamycin for, 778 autonomic regulation, 91t inflammation in asthma, 462, 463/ Lung cancer carboplatin for, 868 cisplatin for, 868 docetaxel for, 884 gemcitabine for, 877 metastatic, teniposide for, 890 non-small-cell bevacizumab for, 904 erlotinib for, 896 gefitinib for, 896 pharmacogenetics, 68 trastuzumab for, 901 paclitaxel for, 884 pemetrexed for, 873 small cell doxorubicin for, 888 etoposide for, 890 topotecan for, 885 Lung flukes, 698 lupron (leuprolide), 975t Lupus erythematosus azathioprine for, 1087 thalidomide for, 1089

Lupus syndrome, drug-induced hydralazine and, 556-557 procainamide and, 600 Luteinizing hormone (LH)

pharmacological properties, 1012 physiological effects, 975 recombinant, 977 LUVERIS (recombinant luteinizing hormone), 977 Luvox (fluvoxamine), 282/ Lyme disease ceftriaxone for, 748 penicillin G for, 736 tetracyclines for, 765 Lymphatic filariasis, 696-697 albendazole for, 697, 700 diethylcarbamazine for, 697, 699, 701

ivermectin for, 699, 702, 703 Lymphocele, sirolimus and, 915 Lymphocytoma cutis, antimalarial agents for, 1085 Lymphogranuloma venereum azithromycin for, 772 doxycycline for, 764 Lymphoma(s)

alemtuzumab for, 901 L-asparaginase for, 892 B-cell, fludarabine for, 880 cutaneous T-cell alklyating agents for, 1087 bexarotene for, 1080 cladribine for, 880 cyclophosphamide for, 1087 denileukin diftitox for, 905, 1092 extracorporeal photopheresis for, 1081

fludarabine for, 880 mechlorethamine for, 861 methotrexate for, 1086 pentostatin for, 881 PUVA for, 1081 vinblastine for, 1089 cyclophosphamide for, 862 doxorubicin for, 888 follicular chlorambucil for, 863 interferon a2b for, 921 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan for, 905 methotrexate for, 872 nitrosoureas for, 865 non-Hodgkin's. See Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma rituximab for, 900 131I-tositumomab for, 905 vincristine for, 883 Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD),

198, 398 LYSODREN (mitotane), 900

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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