Epi is used in many surgical procedures in the nose, throat, and larynx to shrink the mucosa and improve visualization by limiting hemorrhage. Simultaneous injection of Epi with local anesthetics retards the absorption of the anesthetic and increases the duration of anesthesia ( see Chapter 14). Injection of a agonists into the penis may be useful in reversing priapism, a complication of the use of a receptor antagonists or PDE5 inhibitors (e.g., sildenafil) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Both phenylephrine and oxymetazoline are efficacious vasoconstrictors when applied locally during sinus surgery.
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