The number of synthetic local anesthetics is so large that it is impractical to consider them all here. The use of some is restricted to topical application to the eye (see Chapter 63), the mucous membranes, or the skin (see Chapter 62). Many local anesthetics are suitable, however, for infiltration or injection to produce nerve block; some of them also are useful for topical application. The main categories of local anesthetics are given below; agents are listed alphabetically.
Articaine (septocaine) is a recently introduced amino amide, approved in the U.S. for dental and periodontal procedures. It exhibits a rapid onset (1-6 minutes) and duration of action of ~1 hour.
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