Pathology And Pathophysiology

HD is characterized by prominent neuronal loss in the striatum (caudate/putamen). Atrophy of these structures proceeds in an orderly fashion, first affecting the tail of the caudate nucleus and then proceeding anteriorly from mediodorsal to ventrolateral. Other areas of the brain also are affected, although much less severely; one result is a prominent decrease in striatal GABA concentrations, whereas somatostatin and dopamine concentrations are relatively preserved. In most adult-onset cases, the medium spiny neurons that project to the GPi and SNpr (the indirect pathway) appear to be affected earlier than those projecting to the GPe (the direct pathway; see Figure 20-8). The disproportionate impairment of the indirect pathway increases excitatory drive to the neocortex, producing involuntary choreiform movements. In some individuals, rigidity rather than chorea is the predominant clinical feature; this is especially common in juvenile-onset cases. In these cases, the striatal neurons giving rise to both the direct and indirect pathways are impaired to a comparable degree.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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