Pharmacological Properties

Fentanyl is ~100 times more potent than morphine, and sufentanil is ~1000 times more potent than morphine. These drugs are most commonly administered intravenously, although both also are commonly administered epidurally and intrathecally for acute postoperative and chronic pain management. Fentanyl and sufentanil are far more lipid soluble than morphine, greatly reducing the risk of delayed respiratory depression from rostral spread of intraspinally administered narcotic to respiratory centers. The time to peak analgesic effect after intravenous administration of fentanyl and sufentanil is less than that for morphine and meperidine, with peak analgesia being reached after 5 minutes, as opposed to 15 minutes. Recovery from analgesic effects also occurs more quickly. However, with larger doses or prolonged infusions, the effects of these drugs become more lasting, with durations of action becoming similar to those of longer-acting opioids (see below).

Fentanyl and its derivatives decrease the heart rate and can mildly decrease blood pressure. However, these drugs do not release histamine and generally provide a marked degree of cardiovascular stability. Direct depressant effects on the myocardium are minimal. For this reason, high doses of fentanyl or sufentanil are commonly used as the primary anesthetic for patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery or for patients with poor cardiac function. Fentanyl and sufentanil undergo hepatic metabolism and renal excretion. Therefore, with the use of higher doses or prolonged infusions, fentanyl and sufentanil become longer acting.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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