A number of hormones interact to regulate the Ca2+ and phosphate concentrations. The most important are PTH and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D; calcitriol), which regulate mineral homeostasis by effects on the kidney, intestine, and bone (Figure 61-3).
PTH is a polypeptide hormone that regulates plasma Ca2+ by affecting bone formation/resorption, renal Ca2+ excretion/reabsorption, and calcitriol synthesis (thereby indirectly regulating GI calcium absorption).
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