Side Effects

Cardiovascular System Enflurane causes a concentration-dependent decrease in arterial blood pressure, due, in part, to depression of myocardial contractility and peripheral vasodilation. Enflurane has minimal effects on heart rate.

Respiratory System The respiratory effects of enflurane are similar to those of halothane. Enflurane produces a greater depression of the ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercarbia than do either halothane or isoflurane and, like other inhalational anesthetics, is an effective bron-chodilator.

Nervous System Enflurane is a cerebral vasodilator that increases intracranial pressure in some patients. The drug reduces cerebral metabolic O2 consumption and has an unusual property of producing electrical seizure activity. High concentrations of enflurane or profound hypocarbia during enflurane anesthesia result in a characteristic high-voltage, high-frequency EEG pattern that progresses to spike-and-dome complexes punctuated by frank seizure activity that may be accompanied by peripheral motor manifestations. The seizures are self-limited and are not thought to produce permanent damage. Epileptic patients are not particularly susceptible to enflurane-induced seizures; nonetheless, enflurane generally is not used in patients with seizure disorders.

Muscle Enflurane produces significant skeletal muscle relaxation and noticeably enhances the effects of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants. As with other inhalational agents, enflurane relaxes uterine smooth muscle.

Kidney, Liver, and GI Tract

Enflurane reduces renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and urinary output. These effects are rapidly reversed upon drug discontinuation. There is scant evidence of long-term nephrotoxicity following enflurane use, and it is safe to use in patients with renal impairment provided that the depth of enflurane anesthesia and the duration of administration are not excessive. Enflurane reduces splanchnic and hepatic blood flow in proportion to reduced arterial blood pressure but does not appear to alter liver function or to be hepatotoxic.

Desflurane

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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