Oral oseltamivir is effective in the treatment and prevention of influenza A and B virus infections. Treatment of previously healthy adults (75 mg twice daily for 5 days) or children aged 1-12 years (weight-adjusted dosing) with acute influenza reduces illness duration by ~1-2 days, speeds functional recovery, and reduces the risk of complications requiring antibiotic use by 40-50%. Treatment halves the risk of subsequent hospitalization in adults. When used for prophylaxis during the influenza season, oseltamivir (75 mg once daily) is effective (~70-90%) in reducing the likelihood of influenza illness in both unimmunized working adults and in immunized nursing home residents; short-term use (7-10 days) protects against influenza in household contacts.
Zanamivir chemistry and antiviral activity Zanamivir (4-guanidino-2,4-dideoxy-2, 3-dehydro-ALacetyl neuraminic acid) is a sialic acid analog that potently and specifically inhibits the neuraminidases of influenza A and B viruses. Depending on the strain, zanamivir competitively inhibits influenza neuraminidase activity but affects neuraminidases from other pathogens and mammalian sources only at much higher concentrations. Zanamivir inhibits in vitro replication of influenza A and B viruses, including amantadine- and rimantadine-resistant strains and several oseltamivir-resistant variants.
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