Toxicity

Bupivacaine is more cardiotoxic than equi-effective doses of lidocaine. Clinically, this is manifested by severe ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial depression after inadvertent intravascu-lar administration of large doses of bupivacaine. Bupivacaine dissociates slowly during diastole, so a significant fraction of Na+ channels at physiological heart rates remains blocked with bupi-vacaine at the end of diastole. Thus, the block by bupivacaine is cumulative and substantially more than would be predicted by its local anesthetic potency. Bupivacaine-induced cardiac toxicity can be very difficult to treat, and its severity is enhanced by coexisting acidosis, hypercarbia, and hypoxemia. The S-enantiomer and the racemate are equally efficacious and potent, but lev-obupivacaine may be less cardiotoxic.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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