Natural Breast Enlargement

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Bigger Breast Formula Summary

Contents: Ebook
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Potency of the Phytoestrogens

Oestrogenic activity has been demonstrated for phytoestrogens in animal models or in vitro test systems. However, data on relative potency are quite variable, and very dependent on the test model used and the specific end-point considered. Available evidence suggests that in vitro assays are capable of detecting biological activity at lower concentrations than the in vivo models, probably reflecting the ameliorating influence, in vivo, of factors such as absorption, distribution, protein binding, metabolism and degredation elimination. Ultimately, the physiological significance of exposure to a phytoestrogen will depend on the activity shown by the substance in the in vivo situation. Data on the relevant potencies are summarised in Table 1. Provisionally, the most potent appear to be the coumestans, particularly coumestrol. Isoflavones appear less active, with the highest activity in this class being shown by genistein and daidzein. There is a noticeable absence of data on potency for...

Phytoestrogens And Carcinogenesis

Almost all animals are exposed to an array of environmental chemicals, some of which can mimic the activities of endogenous hormones. Different plant products and synthetic compounds are known to have similar chemical compositions and act as estrogens.146 These estrogenlike compounds (so-called phytoestrogens), under laboratory conditions or in the natural environment, might be capable of causing a spectrum of adverse effects on the endocrine system that eventually cause several disorders, including tumorigenesis.147-150 Many in vitro studies using breast cancer cells indicate that phytoestrogens alone imitate the estrogenic effect and induce estrogen-dependent protein (pS2) and cell proliferation in ER-positive MCF-7 cells.146 However, in the presence of estrogen, the effect of phytoestrogens was reversed and the effect was not ER dependent.146 This issue remains a source of debate.151 Despite the adverse effects of naturally occurring phytoestrogens, these compounds also exhibit...

Phytoestrogens

More than 300 plants are known to contain compounds exhibiting estrogenic activity 26 . Typical examples of such phytoestrogens are the isoflavones GEN and daidzein (DAI, Fig. 4), prominent in soy beans, the coumestan COM, present in sprouts of soy beans and alfalfa, and lignans, present in oilseeds, vegetables, and fruit. The two major plant lignans, secoisolariciresinol (SEC) and matairesinol (MAT, Fig. 4), are metabolized by intestinal bacteria to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL). Depending on the diet, some phytoestrogens may be ingested in considerable amounts, e.g., GEN and DAI with soy-based food and SEC and MAT with food containing flaxseed, and lead to plasma levels in the micromolar range 27 . Recently, isoflavones and lignans have gained interest due to their putative beneficial health effects. Consequently, there is an increasing tendency to consume phytoestrogens as dietary supplements. Despite their widespread occurrence and dietary...

Endocrine Active Compounds Interactions and Adverse Endpoints

Endocrine active compounds (EACs), or sometimes called endocrine disrupting chemicals, are a wide class of compounds defined by the EPA as Exogenous agents that interfere with the production, release, transport, metabolism, binding action or elimination of natural hormones in the body responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis and the regulation of developmental processes . Despite the negative title, endocrine disrupting agents with an anti-estrogenic action can be used in clinical applications, especially for fertility control or treatment of certain hormone-dependent cancers. The main anti-estrogen being used to date is tamoxifen. This non-steroidal EAC has turned out to be effective in the treatment of breast cancer because of its partial agonist effect in decreasing the action of estrogen in breast tissue 26 . It also has several beneficial side effects like maintaining bone-density and reducing blood cholesterol levels. However, while tamoxifen works as an antagonist in...

Chronic pain after breast surgery

the generally accepted risk factor of damage to the intercostobrachial nerve is mostly anecdotal.'' Axillary hematoma has been reported as a possible and treatable cause of postmastectomy pain syndrome.71 Chronic pain and persistent upper arm symptoms have been reported after lumpectomy, sentinel node biopsy procedures, and also breast augmentation or reduction surgery.63,65 70 72, 73 As the surgical procedure is quite different in these procedures, and the intercostobrachial nerve may not be affected, clearly other factors in addition to nerve injury contribute to the development of pain. The risk factors for CPSP after breast surgery are examined in more detail in Chapter 31, Preventing chronic pain after surgery in the Acute Pain volume in this series.

O Newer Agents For The Treatment Of Hiv Infection

There is an important caution for the use of PIs. As a class, they cause dyslipidemia, which includes elevated cholesterol and triglycerides and a redistribution of body fat centrally to cause the protease paunch buffalo hump, facial atrophy, and breast enlargement. These agents also cause hyperglycemia.

Beneficial and Adverse Effects of Dietary Estrogens on the Human Endocrine System Clinical and Epidemiological Data

Dietary estrogens, also known as phytoestrogens, represent a family of plant compounds which are of biological interest because they exhibit both in vivo and in vitro weak estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties. Phytoestrogens appear to exert their physiological effects through a variety of possible mechanisms, such as their ability to bind to estrogen receptors and their actions on tyrosine kinases and growth factors. Phytoestrogens can be classified into three main categories consisting of isoflavones, lignans, and coumestans. A variety of commonly consumed foods contains appreciable amounts of these plant compounds which have been identified in various human body fluids, such as plasma, urine, bile, saliva, feces, breast milk, prostatic fluid and semen. Accumulating evidence from both clinical and epidemiologi-cal studies has suggested that dietary estrogens may potentially affect the human endocrine system. The existing evidence reviewed here will identify the current research...

Known Effects of Plant and Fungal Estrogens in Animals and Humans

The phytoestrogens and fungal mycotoxins provide some of the most conclusive data demonstrating that environmental estrogens are toxic to mammalian reproductive function under natural conditions. Naturally occurring compounds with estrogenic and other endocrine activities are widespread in nature. Farnsworth et al. 46 listed over 400 species of plants that contain potentially estrogenic isoflavonoids or coumestans or were suspected of being estro-

Biological Potencies of Dietary Estrogens

Phytoestrogen are of biological interest because they exhibit both in vivo and in vitro weak estrogenic and anti-estrogenic actions through their binding to ERs 68 . The dual action of phytoestrogens as agonists and antagonists has resulted in a general confusion in the literature regarding the role these compounds may play in disease progression and or protection. In common with many other weak estrogens, isoflavones have been shown to be anti-estrogens in model systems, competing for E2 at the receptor complex, yet failing to stimulate a full estrogenic response after binding to the nucleus 69 . This raises the possibility that they may be protective in hormone-related diseases, such as breast cancer 25 . In vitro studies have established that phytoestrogens are weakly estrogenic, since they have the ability to bind to mammalian ERs to a low degree. The relative potencies, determined by human cell culture bioassays (compared with E2, to which an arbitrary value of 100 was given) are...

Other Possible Benefits

Phytoestrogens have been suggested as potentially protective against a number of other disease conditions which can affect both men and women. of primary bile acids from cholesterol, and would thus be expected to decrease cholesterol catabolism, while oestrogen treatment has been shown to be one of the few effective methods of reducing lipoprotein (a), an independent risk factor for coronary diseased Such observations suggest that phytoestrogens might be cardioprotective.i However, the potential influence of other dietary components must be recognised, such as the cardioprotective action of flavonoids from tea consumption, shown in Dutch men.84 Postulated mechanisms by which flavonoids might act include their action on platelet function (anti-aggregatory and inhibitory of cyclo-oxygenase activity), through free radical scavenging, or by effects on the vasculature. A number of in vitro studies have suggested other potential mechanisms by which phytoestrogens might be protective against...

Sources and Typical Intake Levels of Dietary Estrogens

Phytoestrogens are present naturally in many foods of plant origin (e.g., rice, rye, bran, pomegranates, apples, wheat, garlic, oats, coffee, fennel, licorice, barley, parsley, cherries, yeast, potatoes, soybeans, and soy-based products, including animal feeds). They have also been identified in alcoholic beverages. Phytoestrogens have been isolated from beer made from hops and bourbon made from corn 10,50-55 . The type of isoflavone differs according to how the soybean is treated and its origin. Japanese soybean varieties contain different proportions of isoflavones to those grown in the United States (US), and fermented products, such as miso, contain more unconjugated isoflavones rather than daidzin and genistin 56 .Variation in phytoestrogen content can also occur because of genetic differences in plants such as soy varieties, location, season, infection with fungal diseases, and processing 57 . The main isoflavones of interest from a dietary perspective are genistein, daidzein,...

Functional Foods And Disease Prevention

Though it is a focus of a narrow audience to look for products focusing heart health, products with low saturated fats and cholesterol are admired by the majority of the consumers. In the same arena, o-3 fatty acids are still maintaining its recognition among consumers having identified its effects including protection against cardiovascular disease, various inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, and enhanced cognitive health. In recent years, there was concentration toward products targeting the women population composed of active ingredients capable of fighting against bone-related complications, pregnancy, or menopause-related issues. Wider coverage in research is given for phytoestrogens and phy-tosterols available in this category of products among other

Potential Beneficial Effects

The evidence for potential beneficial effects on various human conditions and diseases arising from the consumption of dietary phytoestrogens has been extensively reviewed.1 536 The effects of these substances in various biological systems and during different phases of life have also been reviewed 3i for example, neonatal injection of rodent pups with genistein has been shown to reduce the incidence and multiplicity of mammary tumours arising from post-weaning treatment with the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz a anthracene (DMBA), suggesting a possible protective effect against chemical-induced neoplasia. Although lifestyle and changing socio-economic status can be expected to play a role, it appears that dietary practice may significantly influence the occurrence Table 1 Summary of relative potencies of phytoestrogens (as of 17 -oestradiol value)3 and progression of certain diseases within human populations. In particular, consumption of diets rich in phytoestrogens has been suggested...

Environmental Oestrogens

This term is used to describe man-made chemicals and phytoestrogens which are present in the environment and have oestrogenic activity in vitro and or in vivo. A large number of compounds within several major groups of chemicals have been identified as being weakly oestrogenic by in vitro screening methods however, very few have been adequately tested in vivo (see Table 2 below). Many of these compounds are widespread and persistent in the environment. They are likely to be present in the food chain, drinking water, plastics, household products, cosmetics, toiletries and food packaging, though which is the most important route of human exposure is unclear. However, exposure to the weak oestrogenic activity of man-made chemicals might not be the real cause for concern. It can be argued that exposure to industrial chemicals or agricultural products with oestrogenic activity is likely to be minimal in comparison to our dietary intake of naturally occurring plant-derived oestrogens, the...

Evidence For Endocrine Disruption

Endocrine disruption in wildlife was first reported in the 1950s, though the observations were not immediately associated with disturbance of the endocrine system. The deleterious effects of organochlorine pesticides, in particular DDT and its metabolites, became apparent when breeding failure in raptors in the USA was observed, leading to dramatic falls in populations in exposed areas. The subsequent restrictions in use of such pesticides in Western countries has been associated with a gradual recovery in most affected areas. Nonetheless, owing to the marked environmental stability of these compounds, residues and metabolites are still detected globally. Other chemicals suspected of causing disruption have been identified, including the polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDFs), non-ionic surfactants (used in detergents) and phthalate esters (used as plastisers), together with a number of agrochemicals (such as lindane and...

Coronary Heart Disease

Serum cholesterol has been attributed to the phytoestrogens 192,193 . There is evidence to support the hypothesis that phytoestrogen consumption contributes to the lower incidence of cardiovascular disease in Asian countries and in vegetarians and that phytoestrogens may be cardioprotective 13 . However, the mechanism is uncertain, since genistein is reported to both up- and down-regulate LDL receptors, and some of the products used in studies reporting cholesterol-lowering effects contained unexpectedly low levels of isoflavones 194 . In addition, because of its effects on tyrosine kinases, genistein may have a role in the suppression of the cellular processes which lead to thrombus formation and eventually, atherosclerosis. In cell lines, genistein has been found to inhibit the proliferation brought about by platelet-derived growth factor in the artery wall, and to interfere with release of inflammatory cytokines from macrophages. It also inhibits platelet aggregation and acts as a...

Potential Adverse Effects of Dietary Estrogens

Concern has been expressed that some phytoestrogens may disrupt the developing endocrine system similarly to the effects of other endogenous estrogens 264,265 . Much of this concern has stemmed from animal research. There are well-described examples of phytoestrogen-containing plants inhibiting fertility via estrogenic activity in animals. For instance, sheep grazing on Australian pastures containing a particular type of clover rich in formononetin, which is converted to daidzein in the rumen during fermentation, developed a widespread infertility in the 1940s 248, 266 . Other examples are the moldy corn syndrome in pigs and cattle fed corn contaminated by Fusarium sp., which produces the estrogenic b-resorcyclic acid lactone, zearalenone 267 , and the inhibition of reproduction of California quail by phytoestrogens produced by plants growing in dry conditions 266 . The use of soybean in captive cheetah in Cincinnati zoo was also shown to be responsible for an infertility syndrome,...

Conclusions And Future Directions

Multiple lines of evidence indicate that estrogens can be potent carcinogens in animals as well as in humans, and estrogens are directly associated with tumorigenesis and tumor angiogenesis in various models. The basis for this appears to be their ability to induce many genetic and epigenetic alterations, many of which could provide normal cells with advantages in terms of increased rates of proliferation, which ultimately facilitate transformations. Moreover, estrogens are capable of inducing the angiogenesis needed for tumor survival by modulating both positive and negative regulator of angiogenesis. In our opinion, therefore, estrogens not only promote tumorigenesis by helping the tumor cells proliferate, but also by nourishing the tumor cells through formation of new blood vessels. Many questions remain to be answered with regard to the mechanisms of estrogen involvement in carcinogenesis, and particularly the role of phytoestrogens in these processes. The fundamental question...

Presence of Isoflavones in Soybeans and Soyfoods

Isoflavones are a type of natural flavonoid and possess oestrogen-like properties hence they are sometimes referred to as phytoestrogens. Figure 10.1 shows the general structure of the main isoflavones in soybeans. In contrast with flavones, which exist widely in the plant kingdom, isoflavones are found predominately in a limited number of plants, such as legumes, particularly the soybeans. Soyfoods are the most important source of dietary isoflavones. Isoflavones are not essential nutrients, but they seem to play an important role in health maintenance.

Effects of soy consumption on vascular function

It is possible that phytoestrogens may have a beneficial effect on vascular function by acting directly on vessel walls, perhaps via improved arterial compliance and enhanced FMD.37 A number of studies have been carried out to investigate the improvement in vascular function after treatment with soy products and isoflavones.

Drug Development Overview

Strategies to develop chemopreventive drugs for use have been evolving for many years.1-3 This program has developed as a linear-array strategy by which agents enter and flow through the system in stepwise pattern. In this context, we have begun to examine the chemopreventive potential of a wide variety of synthetic and natural products. Epidemiological evidence has related decreased cancer risk to increased consumption of phytoestrogens and lignans in a vegetarian diet.4 The scientific rationale for conducting chemoprevention trials in humans is based largely on epidemiological evidence suggesting that dietary components may be inhibitors of carcinogenesis.5 Examples of these include vitamins and minerals such as p-carotene,67 vitamin E,8-10 calcium,11 and selenium.1213 Other important sources for identifying potential chemopreventives include cancer research literature, particularly experimental carcinogenesis data from animal

Epidemiology Of Prostate Cancer

The incidence of prostate cancer is very different in these countries compared to that in East Asian countries or in the Mediterranean area, and remains so after reasonable adjustments for age and detection rate (cf. Figure 20.4). More strikingly, second generation immigrants from these countries into the USA show a prostate cancer incidence similar to average Americans. The underlying causes have been much speculated on. The immigrant studies indicate that genetic differences are unlikely to be the dominant factor. Specifically, genetic polymorphisms in hormone metabolism (cf. Table 2.4) have been investigated, but no consistent differences have been identified. Alternatively, different exposures to estrogenic compounds in the environment have been invoked. Plant ingredients called 'phytoestrogens' have

Possible Causes for Concern

Although, as previously noted, interest in phytoestrogens arose from the detection of adverse effects in a number of domestic and other species, there is a lack of evidence of obvious adverse effects in human populations that have traditionally consumed diets high in fruits or vegetables (e.g. the Asian countries). There are only isolated reports of adverse oestrogen-related effects, for example menstrual disorders in Dutch women who apparently consumed large quantities of tulip bulbs during the Second World War.i20 However, even here the effects have not been established as being causally related to phytoestrogens. The human experimental and epidemiological evidence is generally supportive of the beneficial nature of a diet rich in foodstuffs containing phytoestrogens. Thus, it might at first sight be surprising that concerns have been expressed over the potential for phytoestrogens to cause adverse effects. herbal medicines have received little toxicological assessment.122 However,...

Potential Health Benefits of Dietary Estrogens

Studies have shown higher phytoestrogen levels in the urine and plasma of populations at lower risk of these diseases 28, 91 . This section will focus on the beneficial role which phytoestrogens may play in breast cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer, endogenous hormones, the menstrual cycle, menopausal symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis.

Genotoxic Potential of Natural and Synthetic Endocrine Active Compounds

In addition to their hormonal activity, endocrine active compounds may have the potential to cause DNA adducts, oxidative DNA damage, and disturbances of the mitotic apparatus of the cell. They can therefore give rise to gene mutations as well as structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in the same way as do chemical carcinogens. This genotoxic potential is independent of the hormonal activity and often related to metabolic activation. For -estradiol and the equine estrogens equilin and equilenin, the formation of catechols, in particular by hydroxylation at C-4, and subsequent oxidation to ortho-quinones appears to be an important pathway to the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite. Some phytoestrogens, e.g., genistein and coumestrol, exhibit clastogenic and mutagenic effects without metabolic activation. The synthetic antiestrogen tamoxifen is a potent liver carcinogen in rats and forms DNA adducts after allylic hydroxylation followed by sulfation. Diethylstilbestrol, an...

Causeand Effect Relationships for EDCs

Phytoestrogens Fungal mycotoxins PCBs and TCDD Phytoestrogens (miroestrol), menstrual cyclicity and fertility Phytoantiandrogens (permixon) and prostatic function Mitotane (o,p'-DDD) and adrenal function and fertility DDTs and adrenal function Ethinyl estradiol and reproductive function

Conclusions

The phytoestrogens are a diverse range of naturally occurring plant compounds that can interact with cellular oestrogen receptors. Although their potencies are low compared with the endogenous hormones, levels of exposure may be high. There is also evidence that they can bind to SHBG found in mammalian blood, which may further modulate hormonal profiles. In addition to their endocrinological properties, these compounds have other biological activities and it must also be remembered that plants contain many other biologically active compounds. Therefore, effects attributed to the consumption of foodstuffs rich in phytoestrogens cannot automatically be attributed to the endocrine modulating properties of their phytoestrogen constituents. While the evidence from animal studies is that foodstuffs rich in phytoestrogens cause adverse health effects, particularly with regard to fertility, the data for humans suggests that overall they are beneficial. There is compelling evidence from human...

Cancer prevention

A wide range of research studies have demonstrated that soy or soy phytoestrogens have the ability to inhibit the growth of various cancer cell lines, including prostate, breast and lung cancer cells. They have been shown to exert actions on a number of biochemical pathways and molecular mechanisms essential to cell growth and survival. This may be useful in delaying or even preventing the development of clinically significant cancer. Biological activities of soy phytoestrogens Table 10.1 Comparative binding affinities of phytoestrogens to oestrogen receptors19 Table 10.1 Comparative binding affinities of phytoestrogens to oestrogen receptors19

Breast Cancer

Isoflavones have been shown to exhibit anti-carcinogenic activity in vivo. Laboratory animals fed soy-fortified diets have demonstrated protective effects as measured by a decrease in breast tumor proliferation, tumor number, incidence, metastases and an increase in latency, after stimulation with direct-acting, e.g., N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU) and indirect-acting, e.g., dimethyl-benz a anthracene (DMBA) tumor-inducing agents 111-113 . In addition, pre-pubertal genistein-treated rats developed fewer mammary gland terminal end buds, with significantly fewer cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle, and more lobules than controls at 50 days of age 114 . Interestingly, emerging evidence from animal studies suggests that short-term exposure to dietary isoflavones neonatally or pre-pubertally decreases carcinogen-induced differentiated cells in the mammary gland 114 . These studies support a concept derived from other epidemiological investigations that the protective effect of the Asian...

Endogenous Hormones

Steroidal estrogens which circulate in blood are associated with serum proteins. E2 is primarily bound with high affinity to glycoproteins, such as a-fetoprotein in mice and rats or sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in humans, and with low affinity to serum albumin 147,148 . Of the total serum E2 in adults, typically only 1-3 is able to pass into cells and bind to intracellular receptors 148 -151 . When the protein-bound and free fractions of E2 are near steady state, the free fraction is the concentration that determines receptor occupancy and ultimately the level of response. Such carrier proteins have at least two roles in hormone action, i. e., sequestering of the hormone which reduces metabolism by enzymes, and modulation of the concentration of hormone that is available to the target cell 152,153 . The activity of carrier proteins would be affected by dietary estrogens which may displace the steroid from its carrier. Of great importance, although often overlooked, is that...

Menstrual Cycle

Soy intake exerts pronounced physiological effects on the menstrual cycle length (which has been associated with breast cancer risk) and serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in premenopausal. Cassidy et al. 155 monitored the effect of a diet rich in isoflavones on the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women. The results from their study demonstrated that a high intake of soy protein (60 g per day containing 45 mg isoflavones) increased the length of the follicular phase and or delayed menstruation by 2 - 3 days. No effects were shown with supplements from which isoflavones had been removed. The midcycle surges of LH and FSH were also significantly suppressed during the soy-diet period. Another study with a soy drink caused an 'erratic' elevation throughout the cycle 156 . Twelve ounces of soy milk 3 times per day decreases serum E2 and luteal phase serum progesterone in 22- to 29-year-old females 161 . A cyclic pattern of lignan...

Breast surgery

Also some reports of reasonable quality following augmentation mammoplasty or reduction mammo-plasty. Studies of both cancer surgery and augmentation mammoplasty document a significant prevalence of chronic pain following breast surgery (see Table 16.1). For women undergoing cancer surgery, there are also problems with persistent arm pain following axillary dissection. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy following breast surgery will further increase the prevalence of persistent pain 2 . At least one group of researchers has noted a decrease in the incidence of arm pain and symptoms as surgeons have become more careful in the handling of the nerves in the axilla 35 . There are now a number of studies demonstrating that axillary sentinel node biopsy is associated with less persistent pain than a primary axillary dissection. One of these is a randomized controlled study in which women were randomized to a sentinel node study arm or an axillary dissection study arm 36 . Women in the...

Are Humans at Risk

The general presumption for wildlife is that exposure to environmental oestrogens is via food and water. Whether the same is true for humans is less certain. Food as well as containers for foodstuff and drinks may be important sources of some environmental oestrogens such as phytoestrogens, phthalate esters and bisphenol-A. There may be other more important routes of human exposure to such chemicals from substances such as the many lotions, cosmetics, detergents and shampoos that we now apply to our skins daily. Recent data suggest that that these products are likely to be oestrogenic, as they contain alkyl hydroxybenzoate preservatives. i3 Humans are exposed to a variety of endocrine disrupting chemicals throughout their lifetime establishing the level of exposure accurately presents a difficult task. Furthermore, there is the possibility of additive effects of chemicals in vivo, since this is clearly evident in vitro. i 6 Further information on oestrogenic chemicals and routes of...

Soy Isoflavones

Soy-rich diets have been credited with the low incidence of breast, stomach, and prostate cancers in Asian populations compared with their much higher prevalence in the Western hemisphere, where soy consumption is low.139 There has been a multifold increase in research studies correlating consumption of soybean products to prevention of breast, colon, uterine, and prostate cancers. Soy was found to be one of the potent natural supplements with cancer-prevention properties.140 It is a host of two important isoflavones, namely genistein and daidzein. These substances are shown to have various anticarcinogenic properties, including prevention of oxidation, inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, triggering of apoptosis, regulation of gene transcription, modulation of transcription factors, antiangiogenesis, and inhibition of DNA topoisomerage.141 Daidzein and genistein down-regulate the expression of prostate androgen-regulated transcript-1 (PART-1) gene, a possible prostate...

Osteoporosis

Comes porous due to an imbalance in forming and resorbing bone cells, causing structural failure and predisposition to fracture. Osteoporosis in women is particularly associated with the menopause, since the loss of estrogen accelerates bone loss. Osteoporosis is a major health care problem leading to a high incidence of vertebral, radial and mainly hip fractures that are causes of morbidity and mortality in an aging population. HRT prevents this loss, at least up to age 75, if taken for several years early on in the postmenopausal period 221 . HRT prevents the lowering in bone density related to the postmenopausal hy-poestrogenism 222,223 . In addition, tamoxifen is known to prevent bone loss 224 . However, the doses of estrogen required to prevent the postmenopausal bone loss are generally higher than those required to cure the clinical subjective symptoms 225 . Thus, when moderate to high estrogen dose administration is contraindicated, lower estrogen dosages may be sufficient to...

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer 123 , suggesting that phytoestrogens may play a protective role against the development of prostate cancer 42 . There are very few studies which have evaluated humans and the effects dietary estrogens can have on the progression of prostate cancer. Genistein and biochanin A were found to inhibit 5a-reductase in the lysate of human genital skin fibroblast and prostatic tissue 127 . Like isoflavones, lignans also inhibit 5a-reductase 127 . Genistein and other isoflavonoids were found to inhibit the activity of 3- and 17b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 128 . Thus far, there has been one unique case of prostate cancer regression in a 66-year-old patient diagnosed with high-grade adenocarcinoma of the prostate gland. The subject took phytoestrogens in a pill form (160 mg per day) for 1 week before undergoing radical prostatectomy. Stephans 129 reported an increase in apoptosis or cell death, in the resected prostate gland. The potential benefits of soy constituents,...

Menopausal Symptoms

One of the most disruptive and classic aspects of the menopause is the hot flash. In Western societies, it is the most common symptom of the menopause, although the prevalence is much lower in Japan 165,166 . This and the rarity of the problem in soybean-consuming populations have prompted investigations to determine whether phytoestrogens have a similar effect. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) generally alleviates the hot flashes, as well as the vaginitis occurring at the menopause due to atrophy. More recently, postmenopausal Hot flashes are related to the fall in circulating estrogen, rather than absolute levels, and are associated with surges of gonadotropins from the pituitary, e.g., LH. As ovarian activity declines during menopause, serum estrone and E2 fall and remain low. It has been hypothesized that phytoestrogen consumption, due to ER binding affinity, may exert an estrogenic effect in the postmenopausal woman. Japanese women are reported to have a lower frequency of hot...

Genistein

Genistein is a naturally occurring isoflavone and phytoestrogen that has been identified in various human dietary sources, notably soybeans. Epidemiological evidence shows an inverse correlation of phytoestrogens and lignans in a vegetarian diet and cancer risk.18 There have been a large number of mechanisms proposed for the anticancer activity of genistein, including inhibition of tyrosine kinase activity,19 inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase,20 antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.21 inhibition of prostaglandin synthetase,22 and inhibition of benzo a pyrene metabolism.23

Trifolium pratense L

The blossoms of red clover are commonly used in Western herbalism as a blood purifier, an action thought to promote endogenous eliminative processes. For the past 130 years, it has been a primary ingredient in various herbal compounds for the treatment of cancer. In more recent years, it has been studied and sold for its putative ability to relieve menopausal symptoms, presumably due to its content of phytoestrogens. Ideally, blossoms (with attached sepals) should be traded alone however, in commercial trade, the leaf and stem are often included.

Infant Soy Formula

Given the relatively broad choice of infant foods becoming available, exposure to dietary isoflavones during the first year of life is virtually ubiquitous. The isoflavones in soy products are in the form of glycosides whereas those in breast milk are in the form of glucuronides. The bioavailability of these compounds may be a function of the conjugating group as well as the gut microflora of the individual, but the absorption and subsequent metabolism of these compounds by infants has not been fully investigated. The possibility that infants may be exposed to phytoestrogens at concentrations greater than those found in breast milk is cause for concern, given the evidence that hormonal imbalance early in life can affect the sexual development of some animal species 248252 . We know little about the bioavailability of isoflavones in breast milk and soy-containing infant formulas. Most of the isoflavones in breast milk and soy formulas are in the conjugated (bound) form 253 , which may...

Other Solvents

Silicones are polymers comprising alternate atoms of silicon and oxygen, with organic groups attached to the silicon atoms. Various grades are available and so they have many uses as resins, waxes and rubbers, including use as ad-hesives for topical application. Dimethicones (Dimeticone in Europe) are fluid silicones with the organic element a methyl group. These fluid silicones are water repellent and have been used to protect the skin from water soluble irritants. Thus they have been used to protect against bed sores and diaper rash. However, though rare, adverse reactions to silicones have been reported, notably when used for joint or breast implants.

Discussion

Characterizations need to be combined. A way of doing this is by means of biologically-based mathematical modeling, and even though it seems obvious to model these interactions, many hurdles still need to be overcome. First, one should know the size, length and time of exposure to estrogens or estrogen-acting compounds. This can be easily controlled in laboratory circumstances, and might even be predictable for human exposure to man-made chemicals. But little information is available describing the background levels caused by the uptake of, for example, phytoestrogens. Just as important is the question whether these background levels are the same throughout human lifetime or do peaks occur at particular moments And do these moments coincide with more sensitive periods in human development Keeping in mind that, even without this background interference, there is a distribution of homeostatic environments, no single number or set of numbers exists describing all effects and interactions...

Epidemiology

As one might expect, the prevalence of neuropathic pain is markedly higher among patients with diseases known to cause neuropathic pain, such as diabetes (40-50 ) (Veves et al. 2008), HIV infections (38-62 ) (Simpson et al. 2006, Cherry et al. 2006, Morgello et al. 2004), and multiple sclerosis (27.5 ) (Osterberg et al. 2005), as well as those with known or suspected neuronal injury such as trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and postherpetic neuralgia. However, it is less well recognized that neuropathic pain has been reported after a range of different types of common surgical procedures such as tho-racotomy, inguinal hernia repair, and mastectomy. In one of the largest studies conducted to date investigating neuropathic pain following thoracic surgery, Maguire et al. found that at 1 year following video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS), 57 of patients experienced neuropathic pain symptoms that significantly interfered with their daily activities (Maguire et al....

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