Interpretation of Immune Monitoring Assays

Serial immune monitoring is aimed at the accurate identification of changes in the immune profile established at baseline during the course of therapy. Not unexpectedly, there are many pitfalls. Even when the measurements of samples collected over time are made simultaneously and accurately in one assay, it is possible to miss the change, especially when it peaks, simply because sampling intervals are not correct, so that the relevant samples are missing. A separate concern is that of biologic...

Implication of TAMs in Immunotherapy of Human Cancers

Since macrophages can infiltrate tumor tissue or have a tendency to be recruited to the tumor site, this suggests a new approach to cancer immuno-therapy. Macrophages are known to have antitumor activity and are thought to have the potential to mediate tumor cytotoxicity and to stimulate antitumor effects of other immune-related cells. However, in the majority of human cancers, cancer cells can escape these macrophage-associated defense mechanisms. The possible mechanisms by which cancer cells...

Profiling of in Immune Biomarkers

Immune responses involve cascades of balanced interactions between antigens, immune cells, and their products. An imbalance or perturbation of the immune network may be more readily detectable if several rather than one functional or phenotypic markers are measured. Technologic advances now allow for a simultaneous assessment of multiple biomarkers, providing an investigator with a profile, which may be more informative than a single assay. For example, cytokines and chemokines, soluble...

Antitumor Activity of TAMs and the Association Between High TAM Density and a Good Prognosis

The tumoricidal activity of activated macrophages has been studied for several decades. In contrast to the protumor effect of TAMs in human cancers, some investigations showed that TAMs may have important antitumor activity in human malignancy. Macrophages can become tumoricidal for cancer cells after they are activated by antibodies, cytokines such as interferon-7 (IFN-7) , or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The tumoricidal effects of TAMs after activation include direct cytotoxicity against cancer...

Nitric Oxide and the Kynurenine Pathway

NO is generated from l-Arg by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). There are three NOS isoenzymes, two of them (eNOS and nNOS) are constitutive and produce low quantities of NO and the third form is inducible (iNOS) and produces large quantities of NO. This compound has important immuno-modulatory properties 76 . In enzymes carrying the heme group, NO can bind to this prosthetic group modifying the catalytic activity, either activating 77 or inhibiting 78 , depending on the enzyme....

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Minerals and Trace 4. Meal 5. Meal 8. Metabolic Stress is associated with both psychological and biological adaptation. Chronic stress, however, impairs adaptation, and may finally lead to illness, in part through unhealthy changes in nutritional behavior. This chapter shows how physiological and psychological stress responses are affected by th psychologi rs adaptation, mges in nutr sychological Copyright 2008, Published by Elsevier Inc. different food ingredients, and...

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Schambelan M, Sebastian A, Katuna BA, Arteaga E. Adrenocortical hormone secretory response to chronic NH4CI-induced metabolic acidosis. Am J Physiol 1987 252 E454-E460. Kumar R. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2001 10 589-595. Delany AM, Dong Y, Canalis E. Mechanisms of glucocorticoid action in bone cells. J Cell Biochem 1994 56 295-302. Canalis E. Mechanisms of glucocorticoid action in bone Implications to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. J Clin Endocrinol...

Appetite

Appetitive behavior is complex and multifaceted. Stress reactivity, both physiological and psychological, may distinguish overeaters from underea-ters 196 . There is much evidence from animal studies that HPA axis function can profoundly influence expression of appetite and regulation of body weight 6 . The recently discovered new gut peptide, ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 197 , seems to be involved in the control of food intake and energy balance....

Protective Role of IDO in Rejection of the Fetus During Pregnancy

Fetus can be considered from an immunological point of view as a semi-allogeneic transplant having half of the genes from the father, fetus should be rejected by the maternal immunocompetent system. Nevertheless, evolution has found the mechanism to avoid this attack by maintaining the general immune competence. This is one of the most intriguing questions in biology. In 1998, Munn et al. showed the implication of IDO in protecting fetus from the maternal attack in a mouse model 2 . The...

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59 Waterboer T, Sehr P, Michael K, Franceschi S, Nieland JD, Joos TO, et al. Multiplex human papillomavirus serology based on in-situ-purified glutathione s-transferase fusion proteins. Clin Chem 2005 51 1845-1853. 60 Deregt D, Furukawa-Stoffer TL, Tokaryk KL, Pasick J, Hughes KM, Hooper-McGrevy-K, et al. A microsphere immunoassay for detection of antibodies to avian influenza virus. J Virol Methods 2006 137 88-94. 61 Nifli AP, Notas G, Mamoulaki M, Niniraki M, Ampartzaki V, Theodoropoulos PA,...

Fluorescence Technology

Fluorescence-based assays for high-density and high-content screening provide multidimensional readouts including intensity, lifetime, anisotropy, and spectral characteristics, each of which has been exploited by various analytical approaches that monitor changes in at least one of the fluorescence parameters. The use of fluorescence readout has some inherent disadvantages, most notably, autofluorescence and quenching from nonbiological interactions with the target. Each of these scenarios can...