How To Cure Chronic Bronchitis Naturally

Dealing With Bronchitis

Dealing With Bronchitis

If you're wanting to know more about dealing with bronchitis... Then this may be the most important letter you'll ever read! You are About To Read The Most Important Information That Is Available To You Today, You Will Achieve A Better Understanding About Bronchitis! It doesn't matter if you've never had bronchitis before or never known anyone who has, This guide will tell you everything you need to know, without spending too much brainpower!

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Relieve Your Bronchitis Cure

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Discussion Of Health Effects By Route Of Exposure

Although methods have been established to derive these levels (Barnes et al. 1988 EPA 1989a), uncertainties are associated with these techniques. Furthermore, ATSDR acknowledges additional uncertainties inherent in the application of the procedures to derive less than lifetime MRLs. As an example, acute inhalation MRLs may not be protective for health effects that are delayed in development or are acquired following repeated acute insults, such as hypersensitivity reactions, asthma, or chronic bronchitis. As these kinds of health effects data become available and methods to assess levels of significant human exposure improve, these MRLs will be revised.

Asthmaas An Inflammatory Illness

Although there are subtypes of asthma (allergic vs. nonallergic), certain features of airway inflammation are common to all asthmatic airways (Figure 27-1). Airway inflammation presumably is triggered by innate and or adaptive immune responses. Although there may be multiple triggers for an inflammatory response (such as mast cell secretion), there is consensus that a lymphocyte-directed eosinophilic bronchitis is a hallmark of asthma. The lymphocytes that participate in asthma are of the T-helper type 2 (Th2) phenotype, leading to increases in production of interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13. IL-4 promotes IgE synthesis in B cells, while IL-5 supports eosinophil survival. The innate or adapted immune response triggers the production of additional cytokines and chemokines, resulting in trafficking of blood-borne cells (i.e., eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes) into airway tissues these cells further generate a variety of autacoids and cytokines. The inflammatory...

Antiviral Activity of Botanical Polysaccharides

Likewise, oral treatment with exopolysaccharides from halophilous cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica Fremy significantly inhibited pneumonia in influenza virus A (H1N1)-infected mice 285 . Application of this polysaccharide activated lymphocyte proliferation, lymphocyte IL-2 production, cytolytic activity of NK cells and macrophage phagocytosis in treated mice 285 . Qiu and co-workers 286 showed that polysaccharides isolated from Astragalus, Isatis root, Achyranthes root and Chinese yam significantly enhanced the antibody titres against Newcastle disease-infectious bronchitis vaccine and activated concanavalin A-induced proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes after subcutaneous application of the polysaccharides to chickens. Recently, Chen and co-workers 287 confirmed these observations and showed that Astragalus polysaccharide and oxymatrine could synergistically enhance the efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine in chickens.

Discovery Of New Medicines

Currently when a pharmaceutical company considers the development of new medicines, it focuses in certain therapeutic areas only. It is still considered very difficult for even the biggest companies to be active in all therapeutic areas. Then within the therapeutic area, the company will select a disease target. Therefore if it is decided to concentrate on respiratory medicine, a target disease might be asthma or cystic fibrosis or chronic bronchitis. A company will consider many factors before embarking on a particular search for a new medicine. For example, the company will look at diseases which are common but for which there are no, or only unsatisfactory, treatments available. The company will consider their internal expertise, they will consider the commercial return, the competitor activity in this therapeutic area, the current therapies available, the epidemiology of the disease, the cost of the research program etc., before starting.

Macroalgae As Potential Antiasthmatic Agents

The red algal genus Laurencia is known to produce a wide array of natural products exhibiting number of biological activities, due to produce natural bioactive materials of polysaccharides, polyphenols, ter-penes, and the other halogenated secondary metabolites. The protective effect of red algae, Laurencia undulate, has been evaluated against OVA-induced murine allergic airway reactions (Jung et al., 2009). Porphyra dentata, edible red seaweed, has long been used as folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases including, bronchitis, hypersensitiv-ity, and lymphadentis. The macrophage-based assays revealed that the crude extract and phenolic compounds present in P. dentata significantly inhibit inflammatory mediators such as NO, iNOS, and NF-kB (Kazlowskaa et al., 2010).

Conclusions and Future Directions

Finally, the therapeutic actions of nucleotides in infectious airways diseases will require extension from studies of surrogate markers of disease, e.g., measurement of mucociliary clearance rates, to more direct indices of clinical efficacy. Thus, the relative activities of potentially short-acting compounds, e.g., UTP, and potentially longer-acting analogs, e.g., UTPgS, will have to be tested in diseases that are characterized by chronic abnormalities of airway clearance and infection to establish whether one or both of these classes of compounds is active in a particular type of lung disease. Obviously, this is an exciting area of interest owing to the novel nature of this class of compounds for therapy of infectious lung disease and the possibility that they may be effective in nongenetic diseases of mucociliary clearance that are produced as a consequence of inhaled toxins, e.g., chronic bronchitis.

Cigarette Smoking and Pulmonary Antioxidants

Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for the development of pulmonary disease, including emphysema, chronic bronchitis and lung cancer. Amongst its many toxic components, cigarette smoke contains substantial quantities of free radicals in both gas and particulate tar phases (Churg and Cherukupalli, 1993). These include superoxide and nitric oxide, which may combine to produce peroxynitrites, the highly damaging hydroxyl radical (Zang et al., 1995), tar semiquinone-free radicals and various xenobiotic electrophiles (Pryor, 1992). In addition, cigarette smokers have increased numbers of pulmonary inflammatory cells which will provide a secondary source of increased free radical production (MacNee et al., 1989), and circulating leukocytes have an increased oxidative burst (Ludwig and Hoidal, 1982), which will make a significant contribution to oxidative damage in the airways (Fig. 24.3). Smoking is associated with increased levels of lipid peroxidation products in plasma, exhaled...

Chemical Structure Of Oxytetracycline

Oxytetracycline Molecule

Perhaps the most outstanding property of minocycline is its activity toward Gram-positive bacteria, especially staphylococci and streptococci. In fact, minocycline has been effective against staphylococcal strains that are resistant to methicillin and all other tetracyclines, including doxycycline.186 Although it is doubtful that minocycline will replace bactericidal agents for the treatment of life-threatening staphylococcal infections, it may become a useful alternative for the treatment of less serious tissue infections. Minocycline has been recommended for the treatment of chronic bronchitis and other upper respiratory tract infections. Despite its relatively low renal clearance, partially compensated for by high serum and tissue levels, it has been recommended for the treatment of

Amine Group In Erythromycin

Base Hydrolysis Sulfate Half Ester

The incidence and severity of GI adverse effects associated with dirithromycin are similar to those seen with oral erythromycin. Preliminary studies indicate that dirithromycin and erythromycyclamine do not interact significantly with cy-tochrome P450 oxygenases. Thus, the likelihood of interference in the oxidative metabolism of drugs such as phenytoin, theophylline, and cyclosporine by these enzymes may be less with dirithromycin than with erythromycin. Dirithromycin is recommended as an alternative to erythromycin for the treatment of bacterial infections of the upper and lower respiratory tracts, such as pharyngitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia, and for bacterial infections of other soft tissues and the skin. The once-daily dosing schedule for dirithromycin is advantageous in terms of better patient compliance. Its place in therapy remains to be fully assessed.216

Anti Cancer Effect Of Tulasi Leaves In Lung Cancer

Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) is the most revered of all sacred medicinal plants in India. In traditional medicine, it is cherished for its holistic healing properties to restore healthy living by warding off imbalances in the body and mind. In Indian herbal medicine, it is used as a remedy for bronchitis, gastric disorders, hepatic disorders, and skin diseases. Tulsi is also considered to be a diaphoretic, an antiperiodic, an anthelmintic, a cardiotonic, and an antipyretic as well as a blood purifier and an anti-inflammatory.166

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an obstructive airway disorder characterized by a gradually progressive and irreversible decrease in forced expiratory volume (FEVj) (Siafakas et al., 1995). The condition usually arises due to chronic bronchitis or emphysema and the airflow obstruction may be accompanied by airway hyperreactivity. Asthma is generally differentiated from COPD, although distinguishing the two in a patient who smokes and has allergies can be difficult. This decrease is due to narrowing of the airway lumen and occurs as a direct result of disturbances in airway and interstitial lung tissue. There are a number of known risk factors for COPD, including air pollution, recurrent bronchopulmonary infection, socio-economic status and childhood history of respiratory infection. A strong relationship between age and COPD is also noted, with occurrence rare before 40 years and incidence increasing rapidly until 60-70 years of age when it becomes more stable, which...


Avian infectious bronchitis vaccine (live) (0442) Avian infectious bursal disease vaccine (live) (0587) Avian infectious encephalomyelitis vaccine (live) (0588) Avian infectious laryngotracheitis vaccine (live) (1068) Canine leptospirosis vaccine (inactivated) (0447) Duck viral hepatitis type I vaccine (live) (1315) Fowl-pox vaccine (live) (0649) Marek's disease vaccine (live) (0589) Newcastle disease vaccine (live) (0450)


Since the US government's ban on ephedra-based products, there has been an obvious decline in its prevalent use in that country. However, patients may still present for pain evaluation with a history of use of ephedra or be taking related compounds, many of which are readily available and possess potent dose-dependent increases in heart rate and in blood pressure. Ma huang, an ephedra-based alkaloid, is similar in structure to amphetamines and is traditionally indicated for the treatment of various respiratory disorders such as the flu, common cold, allergies, and bronchitis. Additionally, it is commonly used as an appetite suppressant (Hughes et al. 2004). Ma huang or ephedra acts as a sympathomimetic agent and exhibits potent positive inotropic and chronotropic responses. In addition to its antitussive actions, ephedra may also possess bacteriostatic properties (Kaye et al. 2000). As a cardiovascular and respiratory sympathomimetic, it utilizes an a-adrenergic or -adrenergic...

The Future

In the developed countries, we are seeing a frightening increase in pulmonary disease asthma, bronchitis and rhinitis. Certain peptides (the tachykinins) are known to be involved as mediators of the inflammatory response in these conditions the primary structures of tachykinins are known, and some antagonists of their action have been identified. This field is open for rapid development (Lowe and Snider, 1993). A novel approach to anti-inflammatory agents targets cell adhesion, mediated by specific cell surface glycoproteins. The structure, biochemistry and enzymology of the adhesion molecules, and the inhibition of cell adhesion, is another growth area for drug design (Brackenbury, 1990 Rao et al., 1991).


Dictyocaulus viviparus infections are very common in most parts of northern Western Europe much less in southern regions around the Mediterranean Sea. Although infections have a high prevalence in certain regions, lungworm disease (parasitic bronchitis (PB) or husk) in cattle is much less common. Probably D. viviparus infections occur on many farms without causing serious clinical signs and result in the build-up of an adequate degree of immunity. In the epidemiology of lungworm disease, the source of primary infections of susceptible animals is a very important factor. The main sources for primary infections are overwintered larvae on pasture or contamination of pasture by carrier animals (Michel, 1969 Eysker et al., 1993, 1994). A second important phenomenon is the very rapid translation of infective larvae to pasture throughout the grazing season. This and the pre-patent period of 3-4 weeks imply that the intervals between subsequent generations will be approximately 1 month....

Cefaclor Ceclor

Year of discovery Late 1960s (Eli Lilly) Year of introduction 1979 Drug category (3-Lactam cephalosporin Main uses For the treatment of bacterial infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections Related drugs Cefprozil (Cefzil), Ceftazidime (Fortaz), Cefotaxime (Claforan), Cefepime (Maxipime).


EGFR less than 10mL minute 1.73m2 Pregnancy see notes above Breast-feeding see notes above Side-effects see notes above also ileus, dry mouth tachycardia, palpitation, arrhythmias, angina, transient ischaemic attacks, cerebral haemorrhage, myo-cardial infarction, syncope dyspnoea, bronchitis asthenia, nervousness, sleep disturbances hot flushes alopecia, sweating, skin reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necro-lysis, and psoriasis-like efflorescence Dose

Oseltamivir Tamiflu

Oseltamivir, a second-generation oral neuramidinase inhibitor, is widely used for the treatment and prevention of influenza A and B viral infections, including avian flu. Influenza is a serious respiratory illness that affects millions of people annually ( seasonal flu ) and results in many deaths as well as an estimated 10 billion in lost productivity. The symptoms of flu and the common cold are similar, but flu symptoms are generally more severe. Older people and those with a weakened immune system are especially at risk to develop complications such as bronchitis and pneumonia which are the main causes of influenza-related deaths. In recent years a more virulent influenza A type virus, the avian flu, has emerged. Certain strains of the avian flu (e.g., H5N1) are able to infect humans and cause high mortality. Since the effective treatment of the various flu infections has traditionally been difficult due to the lack of potent antiviral drugs, the possibility of a catastrophic...

Amoxicillin Amoxil

Year of discovery 1972 Year of introduction 1979 (GlaxoSmithKline) Drug category (3-Lactam penicillin Main uses For the treatment of bacterial infections, bronchitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, gonorrhea, blood infections, typhoid fever and the eradication of Helicobacteria pylori in the gut Other brand names Isimoxin, Ospamox Related drugs Augmentin (Amoxicillin + Clavulanic acid), Unasyn (Ampicillin + Sulbactam), Piperacillin (Pipracil).

O Newer Antibiotics

Citrobacter Species Treated With Unasyn

Aztreonam for injection is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible Gram-negative microorganism, such as urinary tract infections (complicated and uncomplicated), including pyelonephritis and cystitis (initial and recurrent) caused by E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, E. cloacae, K. oxytoca, Citrobacter sp., and S. marcescens. Aztreonam is also indicated for lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia and bronchitis caused by E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, H. influenzae, P. mirabilis, S. marcescens, and Enterobacter species. Aztreonam is also indicated for septicemia caused by E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, S. marcescens, and Enterobacter spp. Other infections responding to aztreonam include skin and skin structure infections, including those associated with postoperative wounds and ulcers and burns. These may be caused by E. coli, P. mirabilis, S. marcescens, Enterobacter species, P. aeruginosa, K....

Cooh Hooc

When evaluating potential bilirubin treatments, one should take into consideration the experience obtained from traditional Oriental medicine. Ox gallstones (also known as Niu Huang in Chinese, Goou in Japanese, artificial bezoar or calculus bovis 343 , which consist largely of calcium bilirubinate) 344 , have been used as an essential component of many Chinese remedies. The gallstone extracts are said to possess calming, antipyretic, and generally anti-inflammatory effects. The biological effects of these products have been summarized recently in a comprehensive review by McGeary et al. 345 . The biochemical effects of the ox gallstone extracts are not known however, they have been shown to prevent variations in arythmogenic potential of embryonic mouse myocardial cells 346 or to be effective in treating chronic liver diseases 347 . In other Chinese studies summarized in the review article by McGreary et al. 345 , ox gallstones have been shown to have substantial antiviral and...


Upper Respiratory Infections Ampicillin and amoxicillin are active against S. pyogenes and many strains of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, which are major upper respiratory pathogens. The drugs are effective for sinusitis, otitis media, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, and epiglottitis caused by sensitive strains of these organisms. Amoxicillin is the most active of the oral f -lactam antibiotics against both penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae. Based on the increasing prevalence of pneumococcal resistance to penicillin, an increase in dose of oral amoxicillin (from 40-45 to 80-90 mg kg day) for empirical treatment of acute otitis media in children is recommended. Ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae also is a problem in many areas. The addition of a b-lactamase inhibitor (amoxicillin-clavulanate or ampicillin-sulbactam) extends the spectrum to b-lactamase-producing H. influenzae and Enterobacteriaceae. Bacterial pharyngitis should be treated with...


Imipenem-cilastatin is effective for a wide variety of infections, including urinary tract and lower respiratory infections intra-abdominal and gynecological infections and skin, soft tissue, bone, and joint infections. The combination appears to be especially useful for the treatment of serious infections caused by cephalosporin-resistant nosocomial bacteria, as may be seen in hospitalized patients who have recently received other b-lactam antibiotics. Imipenem should not be used as monotherapy for infections with P. aeruginosa because of the risk of developing resistance during therapy.

Black Pepper

Black pepper, also known as Piper nigrum, has been used to treat upset stomach, bronchitis, and even cancer. Some have used black pepper to treat pain associated with neuralgia and skin irritation when used topically and may also possess antimicrobial and diuretic properties (Leung and Foster 1996, Gruenwald et al. 1998). The putative compounds include volatile oils (sabinene, limonene, caryophyllene, P-pinene, a-pinenes), acid amines (e.g., piperines), and fatty acids.