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CBD Pain Freeze Cream Summary


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REMARKS - The strong peak at m z 134 is thought to represent the eliminated cyclohexadienyl moiety (CioHi4+'). Note the presence of the alkene series m z 28, 42, etc.). No obvious fragments of the pentyldihydroxybenzene moiety are observed in this mass range. For pyrolysis products of cannabidiol see ref. 209.

Signaling downstream of Ga12 and Ga13

0nce the G protein is activated, it appears that later stages in the signaling pathway involve RhoA, cdc42, and rac1. In the cell-line studied by Ryberg et al. (2007), anandamide and 0-1602 activated these small G proteins and cannabidiol blocked these effects. On the other hand, in the cell line of Henstridge et al. (2009), activation of RhoA occurred in response to LPI moreover the oscillatory Ca2+ signal was blocked by a dominant-inhibitory mutant of RhoA or by a small-molecule inhibitor of Rho-kinase. This pattern of activation of small G proteins is typical of Ga13-mediated responses. For example, CHO cells endogenously express PAR-1 thrombin receptors and P2Y2 purinoceptors which can activate Ca2+-dependent PLA2. This can be through Gq, but overexpression of Ga13 reveals that In the vasculature, and perhaps more importantly in view of the discovery of GPR55 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, Ga13 signaling regulates endothelial cell migration as shown by its involvement...

Interactions Between GPR55 and CB1 Receptors

Waldeck-Weiermair et al. (2008) also showed that the responses to 0-1602 were antagonized by O-1918, which blocks the vascular responses to anandamide and abnormal cannabidiol (Begg et al., 2003 Offertaler et al., 2003). siRNA directed against GPR55 decreased both the message, and the response to anandamide, but the effects of GPR55-siRNA on control Ca2+ responses mediated by unrelated receptors

Allosteric effects and biased agonism

Alternatively, the apparent agonist effects in GTPgS-binding may be due to allosteric modulation. If, for example, low concentrations of LPI were present in the membrane preparations used by Ryberg et al. (2007) and Johns et al. (2007) cannabinoids such as anandamide might act at as modulators, potentiating effects at an orthosteric LPI-binding site but without having being pure agonists in their own right. This seems unlikely, because CP55,940 would be predicted to behave as an antagonist, but in fact it activates GTPgS binding. Furthermore, 0-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol have not been observed to potentiate GPR55 agonists in the yeast assay (A. J. Brown, unpublished observations). A third property of GPCRs that can underlie differing patterns ofligand specificity is biased agonism. This is not fully satisfactory for GPR55, however, primarily because most examples of biased agonism involve changes in orders of efficacy among panels of ligands when comparing different signaling...

Pharmacology in recombinant and natural systems

Screening activities to identify novel small-molecule ligands and drug leads for GPCRs take place almost wholly in recombinant systems. Therefore, a critical consideration is the extent to which recombinant pharmacology parallels receptor specificity at the physiological site of action. At first sight, there are clear similarities between the behavior of GPR55 in GTPgS-binding and the previously characterized endothelial vasodilator site. In both cases, anandamide, 0-1602, and abnormal cannabidiol activate, and cannabidiol and 0-1918 antagonize, the target (Fig. 5.4). However, there are several important differences. As has been noted, in GTPgS-binding,

Molecular characterization

The existence of a third CB receptor has recently been suggested on the basis of several reports of unique pharmacology. These include (1) in the rat mesenteric artery, the endogenous CB receptor agonist anandamide, but not the synthetic agonist HU210, causes relaxation blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, (2) an analogue of canna-bidiol ('abnormal cannabidiol') causes mesenteric vasodilation in CB1 CB2 knockout mice and this is antagonized by cannabidiol (Jarai et al. 1999), (3) in CB1 knockout mice, the behavioural effects of THC, but not anandamide, are decreased, (4) in the same knockout mice, anandamide (but not THC) is able to enhance 35S-GTPyS binding to brain membranes but this effect is insensitive to CB1 and CB2 antagonists (Di Marzo et al. 2000), (5) in rat astrocytes in vitro, the highly potent CB agonists WIN 55212 and CP55940 inhibit (-adrenoceptor-mediated cAMP formation, in an SR141716-insensitive fashion, in the absence of any evidence for CB2 receptors.

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In response to THC has also been related to an increase of slow-wave activity on EEG (Domino 1981). In vitro THC (1-100 nM) inhibited muscarinic receptor binding, which also ocurred with two nonpsychoactive cannabinoids (cannabidiol and cannabinol) (Ali et al. 1991). However, these effects were not observed in vivo. Monoamines Cannabinoid agonists produce dose-related activation of meso-prefrontal dopaminergic transmission, which depends upon the CB1 receptor (Diana et al. 1998a). Conversely, withdrawal from chronic cannabinoid administration produces a reduction in mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission. Although THC stimulates the presynaptic activity of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons, there is a decrease in postsynaptic sensitivity (Bonnin et al. 1993). Further, this effect is modulated by estrogen, but not estradiol. THC increases the firing rate and burst-pattern firing in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra, although the ventral tegmental area is more sensitive in...

Central pain in multiple sclerosis

In the same line a large randomized placebo-controlled multicenter study from the UK 50 found an improvement in pain after 15 weeks' treatment with cannabinoids (oral THC or cannabis extract). The primary outcome measure of this study, however, was spasticity and no information was given about subtypes of pain. In a heterogeneous group of neurologic patients (including 14 MS patients, four patients with spinal cord injury and two patients with peripheral nerve injury) a double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial 51 found that both cannabidiol and THC were superior to placebo in pain relief.

Pharmacology of GPR55

More recently, Johns et al. (2007), from GlaxoSmithKline, confirmed that abnormal cannabidiol and 0-1602 activated GTPgS binding in HEK293T cells expressing GPR55, while the CB1 CB2 cannabinoid ligand WIN55,212-2 was inactive. In one of the inconsistencies of the literature on GPR55, they found abnormal cannabidiol to have an EC5q of 2.5 nM in their GTPgS assay, which was similar to that for 0-1602, but very different from the value given by (Drmota et al., 2004). Abnormal cannabidiol also relaxed mesenteric blood vessels from mice, in an 0-1918-sensitive manner, even when the vessels were taken from GPR55_ animals. Therefore, although GPR55 is activated by abnormal cannabidiol, it is not the receptor responsible for the vasodilator actions of this cannabinoid. Unfortunately, Johns et al. (2007) did not test the effects of anandamide due to limited availability of tissue from GPR55_ animals (D.G. Johns, personal communication), so it is not possible to conclude with certainty that...

Modulation of Neurotransmission

Recently another arachidonic acid containing metabolite, arachidonoyl-L-serine (ARA-S) has been isolated from brain 75 . In contrast to anandamide, ARA-S very weakly interacts with cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 or vanilloid TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) receptors. It produces endothelium-dependent vasodilation of rat isolated mesenteric arteries and abdominal aorta and stimulates phosphorylation of p44 42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and protein kinase B Akt in cultured endothelial cells 75 . ARA-S also suppresses LPS-mediated secretion of TNF-a in a murine macrophage cell line and in wildtype mice, as well as in mice deficient in CB1 or CB2 receptors. Many of these effects parallel to cannabidiol (Abn-CBD), a synthetic agonist of a putative novel cannabinoid-type receptor. Thus, ARA-S may be an endogenous agonist for this receptor 75 . In contrast, in non-neural cells, ARA-S directly activates large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated K+ (BK(Ca)


A role for the endogenous cannabinoid system in several aspects of human (patho)physiology has been proposed through the activation of cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors, and or via nonreceptor-mediated actions. In the case of AEA, the role of FAAH in controlling its cellular activity seems more critical than that of NAT, NAPE-PLD, or EMT. Here, the activity of FSH, the biological relevance of Sertoli cells, and the main features of the ECS have been briefly described, to put in a better perspective the relevance of FAAH regulation by FSH for male reproduction. In particular, it is suggested that FAAH controls hormone level of AEA, by acting as a molecular integrator of fertility signals. In this context, since low FAAH levels in peripheral lymphocytes (Maccarrone ei a ., 2000), and hence high levels of AEA in blood of pregnant women (Habayeb ei a ., 2008), correlate with pregnancy failure, it can be suggested that FAAH is a critical sensor of reproductive abnormalities also on the...

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