This assay is based on injection of toxin into live mammals (usually mice) and is used to check the potency (lethality) of a given toxin preparation. It has also been applied to the study of substances that antagonize the effect of the toxin by interfering with the initial steps of poisoning (Bakry etal., 1991; Simpson etal., 1990). Normally, the LD50 or the "time to death" is measured (Boroff and Fleck, 1966) and compared with non-treated control animals. It is also possible to inject small amounts of toxin into mammals (mainly BoNT/A) to produce local paralysis which, may result in long term morphological and functional changes (Angaut-Petit et a/., 1990). The highly localized and long-lasting action of the botulinum neurotoxins led to the widespread use of BoNT/A in the symptomatic treatment of local muscle spasms (Hughes, 1994).

Anti-Aging Report

Anti-Aging Report

When people generally think about anti-aging, they tend to think about the visible signs of wear and tear, those tell-tale wrinkles, age spots and their developing jowls. No-one wants to get old, let alone feel and look older than their years and anti-aging treatments are becoming so sought after by both men and women that the skincare market is colossal, but what really works?

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