Abbreviations

4-AP 4-aminopyridine CARF

5-FU 5-fluorouracil

5-HT 5-hydroxytryptamine CART

ABC American Botanical Council CBT

ACC anterior cingulate cortex CCI

ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme CCK

Ach acetylcholine CCR2

ACOG American College of Obstetricians and CD

Gynecologists cDNA

ACR American College of Rheumatology CES

ACTH adrenocortical trophic hormone CES-D

ACh acetylcholine

ADL activities of daily living CFS

AED antiepileptic drug CGRP

AFP atypical facial pain CHF

AHPA American Herbal Products Association CI

AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome CIN

ALJ Administrative Law Judges CLBP

AMA American Medical Association CMI

AMPA a-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole CMV

AO atypical odontalgia CNCP

AOJ atlanto-occipital joint CNMP

APC adenoma prevention with celecoxib CNS

APF anti-proliferative factor COMM

APPROVe Adenomatous Polyp Prevention on Vioxx COMT

ARF acute renal failure COOA

ASA acetylsalicylic acid COPD

ATN antiretroviral toxic neuropathy COX

CP/CPPS

BDI Beck Depression Inventory

BDNF brain-derived neurotrophic factor CPP

BDZ benzodiazepine CPQ

BMS burning mouth syndrome CPSP

BOI burden of illness

BPI Brief Pain Inventory CRD

BSI Brief Symptom Inventory CRP

BTP breakthrough pain CRPS

BZD benzodiazepine CSA

C cytosine CSM

CABG coronary artery bypass graft CSQ

CAD coronary atherosclerotic disease CT

CAM complementary and alternative medicine CTN

Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities Classification and Regression Tree complete blood count cognitive-behavioral therapy chronic constriction injury cholecystokinin chemotactic cytokine receptor 2

Crohn's disease complementary DNA

cauda equina syndrome

Center for Epidemiological

Studies-Depression chronic fatigue syndrome calcitonin gene-related peptide congestive heart failure confidence interval cervical intraepithelial neoplasia chronic lower back pain cell-mediated immunity cytomegalovirus chronic noncancer pain chronic nonmalignant pain central nervous system current opioid misuse measure catechol-O-methyltransferase combined opioid-opioid analgesia chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cyclooxygenase chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome chronic pelvic pain

Chronic Pain Questionnaire central poststroke pain; or chronic postsurgical pain colorectal distension chronic regional pain complex regional pain syndrome

Controlled Substances Act cerebrospinal fluid

Committee on Safety of Medicines

Coping Strategies Questionnaire computed tomography classical trigeminal neuralgia

CTTH chronic tension-type headache FHM

CVA cerebrovascular accident fMRI

CWP chronic widespread pain FMS

d4T stavudine FSH DAP depolarizing after potentials

DAS Disease Assessment Score G

DBS Deep brain stimulation GABA

ddC zalcitabine GABA-A

ddl didanosine GABA-b

DDwR disk displacement with reduction GAD DDwoR disk displacement without reduction

DEA Drug Enforcement Administration GBP

DHE dihydroergotamine GBS

DILS diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis GDNF

DLF dorsolateral funiculus GH

DM diabetes mellitus GI

DMARD disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs GnRH

DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide gp120

DNA deoxyribonucleic acid GP

DNIC diffuse noxious inhibitory control GPRD

DPN diabetic peripheral neuropathy GS

DREZ dorsal root entry zone GTN DRG dorsal root ganglion

DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental HAART

Disorders HADS

DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental HIV

Disorders IV HIZ

DSP distal symmetrical polyneuropathy HLA

EAA excitatory amino acids HPA

EDDP ethylidine-dimethyl-diphenylpyrrolidine HPV8

EECP enhanced external counter pulsation HRR

EEG electroencephalogram HSAN ELBW extremely low birth weight

EMDR eye movement desensitization and HTEA

reprocessing HZ

EMG electromyogram HZV EMLA eutectic mixture of local anesthetics

EP episodic pain IAP

ERCP endoscopic retrograde IASP

cholangiopancreatography

ERK extracellular signal-regulated kinase IBS

ES effect size IC

ESBY Electrical Stimulation versus Coronary ICD-10 Bypass Surgery

ESCOP European Scientific Cooperative of ICER

Phytotherapy ICN

ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate ICU

ETTH episodic tension-type headache IDET

FABQ Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire IHS

FAP functional abdominal pain IL-1ß

FBSS failed back surgery syndrome IL-1Ra

FCE functional capacity evaluation IL-6

FDA Food and Drug Administration IMET FDR false discovery rate familial hemiplegic migraine functional magnetic resonance imaging fibromyalgia syndrome flexor reflex afferents follicle-stimulating hormone guanine gamma aminobutyric acid gamma-aminobutyric acid A gamma aminobutyric acid-b generalized anxiety disorder; or glutamic acid decarboxylase gabapentin

Guillain-Barre syndrome glial-derived neurotrophic factor growth hormone gastrointestinal gonadotropin-releasing hormone glycoprotein 120

general practitioner

General Practice Research Database gastrocnemius-soleus glyceryl trinitrate highly active antiretroviral therapy Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale human immunodeficiency virus high intensity zone human leukocyte antigen health maintenance organization hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal human papilloma virus 8 hazard rate ratio hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy high thoracic epidural anesthesia herpes zoster herpes zoster virus intermittent acute porphyria International Association for the Study of Pain irritable bowel syndrome interstitial cystitis

International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition incremental cost-effectiveness ratio intercostobrachial neuralgia intensive care unit intradiscal electrothermotherapy insulin-like growth factor International Headache Society interleukin-1 ß

interleukin-1 receptor antagonist interleukin-6

Individualized Medication Effectiveness Tests

INCB International Narcotics Control Board NHS

IP incident pain NICE

IRIS immune reconstitution inflammatory NIH

syndrome NMDA

ISSVD International Society for the Study of NNH

Vulvovaginal Disease NNT

i.t. intrathecal NO

ITB intrathecal baclofen NOP

ITDD intrathecal drug delivery NPS

IUD intrauterine devices NPV

IVOT intravenous opioid (sensitivity) testing NRS

IVR intravenous regional NRTI

NSAID

JCAHO Joint Commission on the Accreditation of NTG

Healthcare Organizations NYHA JFS juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome

JNK c-Jun-N-terminal kinase OA

LAAJ lateral atlanto-axial joint OCP

LANSS Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic ODER

Symptoms and Signs OECD LBP low back pain

LIF leukemia inhibitory factor OEI

LIMA left internal mammary artery OIH

Lng-IUS levonorgestrol-releasing intrauterine OR

system OT LTP long-term potentiation

LUNA laparoscopic uterine nerve ablation PADT

M6G morphine-6-glucuronide PAG/PVG

MBSR mindfulness-based stress reduction PAR

MCIC minimum clinically important change PASS

MCS motor cortex stimulation PCA

MCSF macrophage colony-stimulating factor PCPT

MEDAL Multinational Etoricoxib and Diclofenac PCR

Arthritis Long-term PD

MFP myofascial pain PDN

MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality PDPN

Inventory PDQ

MOH medication overuse headache PENS

MPA medroxyprogesterone acetate PET

MPI Multidimensional Pain Inventory PGIC

MPQ McGill Pain Questionnaire PHN

MR magnetic resonance PID

MRI magnetic resonance imaging PKC

mRNA messenger RNA PML

MS multiple sclerosis PMP

MSP musculoskeletal pain PMR

MT mindful therapies

MVAS million visual analog scale PNL

NAPQI N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine POMS

NCPB neurolytic celiac plexus block PPI

NCS nerve conduction studies PPV

NE noradrenaline; or norepinephrine PT

NGF nerve growth factor PTSD

NHL non-Hodgkin's lymphoma PVD

National Health Service

National Institute for Clinical Excellence

National Institutes of Health

N-methyl-D-aspartic acid number needed to harm number needed to treat nitric oxide neuropathic orofacial pain Neuropathic Pain Scale negative predictive value numeric rating scale nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug nitroglycerin

New York Heart Association osteoarthritis

Office of Alternative Medicine oral contraceptive pill opioid dose escalation rate

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development opioid escalation index opioid-induced hyperalgesia opioid rotation; or odds ratio opioid tolerance

Pain Assessment and Documentation Tool periaqueductal gray periaquaductal or periventricular gray pain relief

Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale patient-controlled analgesia Posttraumatic Chronic Pain Test polymerase chain reaction Parkinson's disease painful diabetic neuropathy painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy Pain Disability Questionnaire percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation positron emission tomography Patient Global Impression of Change postherpetic neuralgia pelvic inflammatory disease protein kinase C

progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Pain Management Program percutaneous revascularization; or progressive muscle relaxation partial sciatic nerve ligation peripheral nervous system

Profile of Mood States proton-pump inhibitors positive predictive value physical therapy posttraumatic stress disorder peripheral vascular disease

QALY quality adjusted life year STN

QOL quality of life SUPPORT

qPCR quantitative polymerase chain reaction

QS quality scale

QSART quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test T

QST quantitative sensory testing TC

RA rheumatoid arthritis

RAP recurrent abdominal pain; or refractory tDCS

angina pectoris TDF

rCBF regional cerebral blood flow TENS

RCT randomized controlled trial TMD

RDC research diagnostic criteria TMJ

RF radiofrequency TMR

rhNGF recombinant human growth factor TN

RNA ribonucleic acid TNF

rRNA ribosomal RNAs TNFa

RR relative risk TPBS

RSD reflex sympathetic dystrophy TRP

RSO resting sweat output TSK

RVM rostral ventromedial medulla TST

SCI spinal cord injury TTX

SCL-90R Symptom Checklist 90-Revised TTX-r

SCS spinal cord stimulation TTX-S

SDR selective dorsal rhizotomy

SEP somatosensory evoked potential U

SF-36 Short-Form-36 UC

SFS Spinal Function Sort UMNS

SHBPS Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey

SIF sacral insufficiency fracture VAS

SIP Sickness Impact Profile VC

SLE systemic lupus erythematosus VDCC

SNF skilled nursing facility VMpo

SNI spared nerve injury VPL

SNL spinal nerve ligation VPM

SNP single nucleotide polymorphisms VSCC

SNRI serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor VZV

SNT spinal nerve transection

SP substance P WDR

SPECT single photon emission computed WHO

tomography WHYMPI

SPID sum of the differences in pain intensity

SPS Shingles Prevention Study WLC

SR sustained release WLQ

SSR sympathetic skin response WOMAC

SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

STAI State-Trait Anxiety Inventory

STAR Screening Tool for Addiction Risk ZJ

symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia Study to Understand Prognosis, Preferences for Outcomes, and Risks of Treatment thymine treatment control trichloroacetic acid; or tricyclic antidepressant transcranial direct current stimulation transdermal fentanyl transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation temporomandibular disorder temporomandibular joint transmyocardial revascularization trigeminal neuralgia tumor necrosis factor tumor necrosis factor-a three-phase bone scan transient receptor potential

Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia thermoregulatory sweat test tension-type headache tetrodotoxin tetrodotoxin-resistant tetrodotoxin-sensitive channel uracil ulcerative colitis upper motor neuron syndrome visual analog scale ventrocaudalis voltage-dependent calcium channel ventral medial posterior ventroposterolateral ventroposteriomedial voltage-sensitive calcium channel varicella zoster virus wide dynamic range

World Health Organization

West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain

Inventory waiting list control

Work Limitations Questionnaire

Western Ontario and McMaster Universities

Osteoarthritis Index zygapophysial joint

PART I

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

1 Applied physiology: neuropathic pain 3 Victoria CJ Wallace and Andrew SC Rice

2 Applied physiology: persistent musculoskeletal pain 24

Hans-Georg Schaible

3 Applied physiology: persistent visceral pain 37

Timothy J Ness

4 Genetics of chronic pain: crucial concepts in genetics and research tools to understand the 48 molecular biology of pain and analgesia

Bradley E Aouizerat and Christine A Miaskowski

5 Epidemiology of chronic pain: classical to molecular approaches to understanding the epidemiology of pain 65 Cielito Reyes-Gibby, Isabel Torres-Vigil, and Roy Croock

6 The economics of chronic pain 75 Ceri J Phillips

7 The challenges of pain and suffering 86

David B Morris and Peter R Wilson

8 Pain in society: ethical and legal perspectives 99

Ben A Rich

9 Chronic pain, impairment, and disability 115

Robert J Gatchel and Nancy D Kishino

10 The psychological assessment of pain in patients with chronic pain 122

Allen H Lebovits

11 Assessment of the patient with neuropathic pain 132

Hanne Gottrup and Troels S Jensen

12 Diagnostic procedures in chronic pain 145

Nikolai Bogduk

13 Psychological effects of chronic pain: an overview 169

Lance M McCracken

14 Outcome measurement in chronic pain 178

Tim Johnson

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