Studies of chronic pain are predominantly cross-sectional studies. In these studies, participants are sampled, and information related to pain and its risk factors is measured at a single point in time. Prevalence is estimated as the proportion of subjects with pain in the whole study sample. Because information relating to the disease state and risk factors is assessed at the same point in time, causality cannot be inferred, and biases regarding exposure exist. There are several data collection methods
Exposed Not exposed used in cross-sectional studies including in-person/ household surveys and telephone and postal surveys (Table 5.1).
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