Differential Diagnoses

The differential diagnoses for AO are the same as for AFP. MANAGEMENT AND PROGNOSIS

Management of AO is performed as management of AFP. Recently, an RCT was published evaluating the effect of fentanyl (a m-opioid agonist) and S-ketamine (an NMDA-receptor antagonist) on AO pain and capsaicin-evoked pain in a placebo-controlled manner. Fentanyl effectively reduced evoked pain, but none of the two active drugs alleviated AO pain more effectively than placebo, indicating that opioid- and NMDA-receptors are not promising targets in the treatment of AO (Figure 35.2). 132[II]

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