Epidemiology

Prevalence estimates on BMS range from 0.7133 to 15 percent,134 but the highest estimates may be due to

Infusion start

AO pain i

Evoked pain

Capsaicin Time (min)

Placebo

S-ketamine

Fentanyl

Figure 35.2 Mean effect of fentanyl and S-ketamine on atypical odontalgia (AO) pain and capsaicin-evoked pain (n = 10). ^Indicate significant different from placebo and S-ketamine (p<0.05).

demonstrated (subclinical) sensory changes and abnormal brain stem reflex responses,137,139140 which suggests a dysfunction in the peripheral or central nervous system, either in the form of a neuropathic or a "functional" pain condition.137,141 A psychogenic etiology has also been suggested, but is generally not accepted as a causal factor for BMS.

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