Intrathecal drug delivery

There are no randomized prospective clinical trials of intrathecal medication for CRPS. Reported indications are for pain management and the usual pharmacology has been employed singly or, more commonly, in combination. Agents named in case reports and series include local anesthetics (usually bupivacaine), opioids (morphine, hydromorphone, fentanyl), adjuvants (clonidine, baclofen63^]), sodium channel blockers (ziconotide),64[V] and botulinum toxins.65[V] This route is discussed in more detail in Chapter 31, Intrathecal drug delivery in the Practice and Procedures volume of this series.

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