DNA), either through variations or mutations, can modify gene expression and resultant protein synthesis, thus altering cell structure and function. These genotypic changes lead to phenotypic changes that are observed as neuronal abnormalities, altered pain sensations, and/or a variety of medical conditions.

The Human Genome Project has increased our understanding of the contribution of genetics to health and human disease. While its initial goal was the mapping of the human genome, the project has expanded to map the genomes of many organisms. In addition, the Human Genome Project will determine the common population variations in given genomes, as well as their expression at both the RNA (transcriptome) and protein (proteome) levels. An in-depth description of the Human Genome Project can be found at

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