Key Learning Points

• Although spinal stimulation has been in existence for 40 years, the lack of suitable controls (patient, electrical, paresthesia, sensation) has hampered the performance of randomized trials.

• The mechanism of action of neurological stimulation appears to include gate control systems at the spinal level, as well as changes in neurotransmitter modulation of neural function.

• Technological advances in stimulation leads and battery power sources have made virtually any neurological site a potential target for neuromodulation.

• Spinal stimulation for the multiple operated back and radicular pain has been buoyed by a recent key randomized trial comparing stimulation to reoperation. Likewise, spinal stimulation for intractable angina pectoris is best supported by published trials.

• Due to the difficulty with sham controls, and resulting evidential problems, interventional pain physicians should develop best practice approaches to safety to limit adverse events from implantation of these devices.

Naturally Cure Your Headaches

Naturally Cure Your Headaches

Are Headaches Taking Your Life Hostage and Preventing You From Living to Your Fullest Potential? Are you tired of being given the run around by doctors who tell you that your headaches or migraines are psychological or that they have no cause that can be treated? Are you sick of calling in sick because you woke up with a headache so bad that you can barely think or see straight?

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