• Much information about neuropathic pain models is gleaned from studies in animal models.
• Damage to peripheral nerves causes phenotypic and excitability changes.
• Inflammatory mediators can produce excitation of neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS).
• Nerve injury can lead to cell death and anatomical reorganization.
• A loss of inhibitory mechanisms and increase in excitatory mechanisms are associated with increased activity in the spinal cord in neuropathic pain.
• Microglia are activated in neuropathic pain and release pronociceptive substances which can activate neurons in the spinal cord.
• Supraspinal sites have increased excitatory influences on spinal nociceptive processing following nerve injury.
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Are Headaches Taking Your Life Hostage and Preventing You From Living to Your Fullest Potential? Are you tired of being given the run around by doctors who tell you that your headaches or migraines are psychological or that they have no cause that can be treated? Are you sick of calling in sick because you woke up with a headache so bad that you can barely think or see straight?