Multidimensional Pain Inventory

Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI),12 originally derived from the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory (WHYMPI),33 is a specific self-report pain measure, based on a cognitive-behavioral approach, that evaluates subjective, behavioral, and psychophysiological indices. The first section assesses:

• perceived interference of pain in daily activities;

• support experienced from significant others;

• pain severity and level of suffering;

• perceived self-control over life and life's problems;

• affective distress.

The second section is unique in that it evaluates the patient's perception regarding the responses of his/her significant other to his/her pain and assesses:

• the degree to which the patient's pain behavior is reacted to with irritation, frustration, or anger by the significant other (punishing responses);

• the frequency with which the significant other responds to pain behavior with encouragement (soliciting responses);

• the level of distracting responses that the significant other uses in response to pain behavior (distracting responses).

The third section assesses the frequency with which the patient participates in five categories of activity, as follows:

1. household chores;

2. outdoor work;

3. activities away from home;

4. social activities;

5. general activity level.

The MPI is easily administered, has face validity for the patient (the relationship to pain is obvious), and is a multidimensional tool that is unique in its assessment of environmental contingencies.

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