This chapter is organized into two sections: the first section provides an introduction to concepts of and tools for the study of genetics and genomics; the second section delves into research-related issues unique to the study of pain.
With few exceptions, all of the cells in the human body contain the same genetic material in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is composed of a collection of functional units termed genes (collectively referred to as a genome) that provide the instructions for the synthesis of all ribonucleic acid (RNA)-based transcripts (an intermediary of most gene expression). In turn, these RNA transcripts provide the basis for the translation of all human proteins. However, different cell types each synthesize (or "express") a unique subset of the total possible RNA species and proteins encoded for by DNA. These differences in expression are the primary basis for the different cell types (as defined both in terms of their structure and function), as well as the cooperative assembly of various cell types into tissues and organs. The occurrence of changes in the nucleotide composition of a DNA molecule (a nucleotide is the "quantum unit'' of
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Are Headaches Taking Your Life Hostage and Preventing You From Living to Your Fullest Potential? Are you tired of being given the run around by doctors who tell you that your headaches or migraines are psychological or that they have no cause that can be treated? Are you sick of calling in sick because you woke up with a headache so bad that you can barely think or see straight?