The role of the placebo or nocebo effects in management of CRPS are impossible to measure. They are extremely important issues and relate closely to the interactions between the patient and therapists. There are placebo effects that can be obtained by medications, invasive modalities, and rehabilitation therapies. It is intuitively more beneficial to obtain a placebo effect in addition to the particular manipulation in the clinical situation. Placebo is discussed in Chapter 41, Placebo and nocebo in the Practice and Procedures volume of this series.

• Ineffective agents:

- calcitonin;50[II]

- lorazepam;

- mexilitene;

- thalidomide;

- electromagnetic fields.51 [II]

• Marginally effective agents:

- gabapentin;52[II]

- alendronate;53[II]

- acetylcysteine;55, 56[II]

- thalidomide.57

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