1. Andersson HI. The epidemiology of chronic pain in a Swedish rural area. Quality of Life Research. 1994; 3: S19-26.
2. Bergman S, Herrstrom P, Hogstrom K et al. Chronic musculoskeletal pain, prevalence rates, and sociodemographic associations in a Swedish population study. Journal of Rheumatology. 2001; 28: 1369-77.
3. Blyth FM, March LM, Brnabic AJM et al. Chronic pain in Australia: a prevalence study. Pain. 2001; 89: 127-34.
4. Blyth FM, March LM, Cousins MJ. Chronic pain-related disability and use of analgesia and health services in a Sydney community. Medical Journal of Australia. 2003; 179: 84-7.
5. Breivik H, Collett B, Ventafridda V et al. Survey of chronic pain in Europe: Prevalence, impact on daily life, and treatment. European Journal of Pain. 2006; 10: 287-333.
7. Catala E, Reig E, Artes M et al. Prevalence of pain in the Spanish population: telephone survey in 5000 homes. European Journal of Pain - London. 2002; 6: 133-40.
8. Chrubasik S, Junck H, Zappe HA, Stutzke O. A survey on pain complaints and health care utilization in a German population sample. European Journal of Anaesthesiology. 1998; 15: 397-408.
9. Croft P, Rigby AS, Boswell R et al. The prevalence of chronic widespread pain in the general-population. Journal of Rheumatology. 1993; 20: 710-13.
10. Elliott AM, Smith BH, Penny KI et al. The epidemiology of chronic pain in the community. Lancet. 1999; 354: 1248-52.
11. Eriksen J, Jensen MK, Sjogren P et al. Epidemiology of chronic non-malignant pain in Denmark. Pain. 2003; 106: 221-8.
12. Hassan AE, Saleh HA, Baroudy YM et al. Prevalence of neuropathic pain among patients suffering from chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal. 2004; 25: 1986-90.
13. Moulin DE, Clark AJ, Speechley M, Morley-Forster PK. Chronic pain in Canada - prevalence, treatment, impact and the role of opioid analgesia. Pain Research and Management. 2002; 7: 179-84.
14. Ng KF, Tsui SL, Chan WS. Prevalence of common chronic pain in Hong Kong adults. Clinical Journal of Pain. 2002; 18: 275-81.
15. Rustoen T, Wahl AK, Hanestad BR et al. Prevalence and characteristics of chronic pain in the general Norwegian population. European Journal of Pain. 2004; 8: 555-65.
16. Saastamoinen P, Leino-Arjas P, Laaksonen M, Lahelma E. Socio-economic differences in the prevalence of acute, chronic and disabling chronic pain among ageing employees. Pain. 2005; 114: 364-71.
17. Taylor WJ. The frequency and impact of musculoskeletal pain in the adult New Zealand general population. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2005; 64: 548.
18. Torrance N, Smith BH, Bennett MI, Lee AJ. The epidemiology of chronic pain of predominantly neuropathic origin. Results from a general population survey. Journal of Pain. 2006; 7: 281-9.
19. Yu HY, Tang FI, Kuo BIT, Yu S. Prevalence, interference, and risk factors for chronic pain among Taiwanese community older people. Pain Management Nursing. 2006; 7: 2-11.
20. Gureje O, Von Korff M, Simon GE, Gater R. Persistent pain and well-being: a World Health Organization Study in Primary Care. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1998; 280: 147-51.
21. Sandler RS, Stewart WF, Liberman JN et al. Abdominal pain, bloating, and diarrhea in the United States: prevalence and impact. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 2000; 45: 1166-71.
22. Reyes-Gibby CC, Aday L, Cleeland C. Impact of pain on self-rated health in the community-dwelling older adults. Pain. 2002; 95: 75-82.
23. Magni G, Rigatti-Luchini S, Fracca F, Merskey H. Suicidality in chronic abdominal pain: an analysis of the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES). Pain. 1998; 76: 137-44.
24. Magni G, Caldieron C, Rigatti-Luchini S, Merskey H. Chronic musculoskeletal pain and depressive symptoms in the general population. An analysis of the 1st National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Pain. 1990; 43: 299-307.
25. Magni G, Moreschi C, Rigatti-Luchini S, Merskey H. Prospective study on the relationship between depressive symptoms and chronic musculoskeletal pain. Pain. 1994; 56: 289-97.
26. Turk DC, Okifuji A, Scharff L. Chronic pain and depression: role of perceived impact and perceived control in different age cohorts. Pain. 1995; 61: 93-101.
27. McWilliams LA, Goodwin RD, Cox BJ. Depression and anxiety associated with three pain conditions: results from a nationally representative sample. Pain. 2004; 111: 77-83.
28. Ohayon MM. Specific characteristics of the pain/ depression association in the general population. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2004; 65: 5-9.
29. Onder G, Landi F, Gambassi G et al. Association between pain and depression among older adults in Europe: results from the Aged in Home Care (AdHOC) project: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2005; 66: 982-8.
30. Stewart WF, Ricci JA, Chee E et al. Lost productive time and cost due to common pain conditions in the US workforce. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2003; 290: 2443-54.
31. Sleed M, Eccleston C, Beecham J et al. The economic impact of chronic pain in adolescence: methodological considerations and a preliminary costs-of-illness study Pain. 2005; 119: 183-90.
32. Crook J, Rideout E, Browne G. The prevalence of pain complaints in a general-population. Pain. 1984; 18: 299-314.
33. Helme RD, Gibson SJ. The epidemiology of pain in elderly people. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 2001; 17: 417-31, v.
34. Ferrell BA, Ferrell BR, Osterweil D. Pain in the nursing home. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1990; 38: 409-14.
35. Weiner DK. Improving pain management for older adults: an urgent agenda for the educator, investigator, and practitioner. Pain. 2002; 97: 1-4.
36. Bernabei R, Gambassi G, Lapane K et al. Management of pain in elderly patients with cancer. SAGE Study Group. Systematic Assessment of Geriatric Drug Use via Epidemiology. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1998; 279: 1877-82.
37. Dao TT, Leresche L. Gender differences in pain. Journal of Orofacial Pain. 2000; 14: 169-84.
38. Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z. Sex differences in pain perception. Gender Medicine. 2005; 2: 137-45.
39. Fillingim RB, Gear RW. Sex differences in opioid analgesia: clinical and experimental findings. European Journal of Pain. 2004; 8: 413-25.
40. Green CR, Anderson KO, Baker TA et al. The unequal burden of pain: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in pain. Pain Medicine. 2003; 4: 277-94.
41. Green CR, Baker TA, Sato Y et al. Race and chronic pain: A comparative study of young black and white Americans presenting for management. Journal of Pain. 2003; 4: 176-83.
42. Reyes-Gibby CC, Aday LA, Todd KH et al. Pain in aging community-dwelling adults in the United States: non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Hispanics. Journal of Pain. 2007; 8: 75-84.
43. Aday LA. Access to what? For whom? Health Managenent Quarterly. 1990; 12: 18-22.
44. Aday LA. Equity, accessibility, and ethical issues: is the U.S. health care reform debate asking the right questions? American Behavioral Scientist. 1993; 36: 724-40.
45. Anonymous. Transforming healthcare: IOM panel discusses vision and reality after crossing the quality chasm. Quality Letter for Healthcare Leaders. 2004; 16: 9-12, 1.
* 46. Rothman KJ, Greenland S. Modern epidemiology.
Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1998.
* 47. Selvin S. Statistical analysis of epidemiologic data, 2nd edn. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
48. Hartvigsen J, Christensen K. Active lifestyle protects against incident low back pain in seniors: a population-based 2-year prospective study of 1387 Danish twins aged 70-100 years. Spine. 2007; 32: 76-81.
49. Kopec JA, Sayre EC. Work-related psychosocial factors and chronic pain: a prospective cohort study in Canadian workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2004; 46: 1263-71.
50. Wacholder S, Silverman DT, McLaughlin JK, Mandel JS. Selection of controls in case-control studies. III. Design options. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1992; 135: 1042-50.
51. Wacholder S, Silverman DT, McLaughlin JK, Mandel JS. Selection of controls in case-control studies. II. Types of controls. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1992; 135: 1029-41.
52. Wacholder S, McLaughlin JK, Silverman DT, Mandel JS. Selection of controls in case-control studies. I.
Principles. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1992; 135: 1019-28.
Zubieta JK, Heitzeg MM, Smith YR et al. COMT val158met genotype affects mu-opioid neurotransmitter responses to a pain stressor. Science. 2003; 299: 1240-3. Kim H, Lee H, Rowan J et al. Genetic polymorphisms in monoamine neurotransmitter systems show only weak association with acute post-surgical pain in humans. Molecular Pain. 2006; 2: 24.
Diatchenko L, Slade GD, Nackley AG et al. Genetic basis for individual variations in pain perception and the development of a chronic pain condition. Human Molecular Genetics. 2005; 14: 135-43. Rakvag TT, Klepstad P, Baar C et al. The Val158Met polymorphism of the human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene may influence morphine requirements in cancer pain patients. Pain. 2005; 116: 73-8.
Reyes-Gibby CC, Shete S, Rakvag T et al. Exploring joint effects of genes and the clinical efficacy of morphine for cancer pain: OPRM1 and COMT gene. Pain. 2007; 130: 25-30.
Wu X, Gu J, Grossman HB et al. Bladder cancer predisposition: a multigenic approach to DNA-repair and cell-cycle-control genes. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2006; 78: 464-79.
* 59. Millstein J, Conti DV, Gilliland FD, Gauderman WJ. A
testing framework for identifying susceptibility genes in the presence of epistasis. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2006; 78: 15-27.
* 60. Ritchie MD, Hahn LW, Moore JH. Power of multifactor dimensionality reduction for detecting gene-gene interactions in the presence of genotyping error, missing data, phenocopy, and genetic heterogeneity. Genetic Epidemiology. 2003; 24: 150-7. 61. Chatterjee N, Kalaylioglu Z, Moslehi R et al. Powerful multilocus tests of genetic association in the presence of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. American Journal of Human Genetics. 2006; 79: 1002-16.
* 62. Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y. Controlling the false discovery rate - a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B -Methodological. 1995; 57: 289-300. Westfall PH, Young SS. Resampling-based multiple testing: examples and methods for p-value adjustment. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1993. Storey JD. A direct approach to false discovery rates. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B -Statistical Methodology. 2002; 64: 479-98.
* 65. Storey JD, Tibshirani R. Statistical significance for genomewide studies. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2003; 100: 9440-5.
Was this article helpful?
Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.