Stimulusindependent pains

Stimulus-independent pains are spontaneous and may be continuous or paroxysmal. Their characteristics differ, but can be shooting, shock-like, aching, cramping, crushing, smarting, or burning. Episodic, paroxysmal types of pain can be brief and shooting, electric, shock-like, or stabbing in their character. In its most typical form, paroxysmal pain is seen in tic douloureux, in entrapment neuropathies, in amputees, and in luetic diseases. For example, in tabes dorsalis, shooting pains are described often in the form of transverse lightning pains in the legs and are provoked by emotional stress. Shooting pains can also occur in cases with a nerve compression (e.g. slipped disk,

Stimulus independent Stimulus dependent

Pain character

Pain duration

Pain intensity of different pain types Pain unpleasantness Pain radiation Pain distribution Pain area

Stimulus type(s) Pain character

Pain intensity evoked by different stimuli Pain radiation Pain aftersensation Pain summation Pain area vertebral compression, neoplastic nerve compression, and entrapment syndromes).4,30

The mechanism underlying these pains is assumed to reflect an increased discharge in sensitized C-nociceptors, but occasionally the pains may reflect increased activity in sensitized receptors associated with large myelinated A-fibers, giving a sensation of burning or dysesthesia.31

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