Vascular and visceral disorders

For vascular and visceral diseases (Table 12.5), the objective of investigations is to depict and define the lesion. Typically, these would involve imaging, such as ultrasound, MR imaging, or contrast studies for vessels and hollow viscera, direct visualization by endoscopy, biopsy, or organ-specific studies, such as electro-cardiography, or disease-specific blood tests. The nature of these investigations and their application is not the province of pain medicine to dictate. They are determined by the medical specialties that conventionally deal with these problems.

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